Site: Emily Carr University's Moodle Site
Course: DHIS-310-SU90-2016-Canadian Design History/Theory - Term II
Book: Welcome
Printed by: Guest user
Date: Sunday, 26 June 2022, 4:41 AM


CLICK above to enter the web book for Week One A and B for the Course Welcome & Introduction
NOTE: Online Live Chat is scheduled for TUESDAY 10th at 8:00 PM to 9:00 PM AND WEDNESDAY 11th at 8:00 to 9:00 PM

1. Course Overview: Lectures (Pages, Chapters, Pages and Links--Sam Carter, Instructor


Structure of Weekly Lectures

Each week a different Lecture (Book) will be released. The primary components for each weekly presentation are:

  • Lectures "Books"
  • Chapters (each numbered)
  • Pages (with image, text and video, each numbered)
  • Links

All Lectures (Books) contain Topics with Pages featuring text, images, links and video clips. The video clips include diverse opinions and experiences from individuals from across Canada concerned with Canadian (Design+Craft) (History+Theory).

Each Lecture (Books) has been designed to correspond with a traditional classroom three-hour lecture. The links are provided to encourage additional exploration and provide ideas for assignments and for your personal interest.

2. Canadian Images and Icons


Douglas Coupland, alumus of ECUAD and author of Generation X and so many other books, articles, television, films, etc. explores the ethos of Canadian culture. His books: Souvenir of Canada Vols. 1 and 2 talks picture "the look" of Canada.

Think of your first assignment when you think about Dougs work. In your Coursepack is an article from Macleans on Canada "Lite".

So much of Coupland's work is concerned with Canadian imagery, content and qualities that distinguish Canadian.?

Your first assignment encourages you to look carefully at the issue of articulating and acknowledging Canadian design. See assignments for more information.

For the purposes of this course, Canadian design is anything created by a Canadian, in Canada or abroad, or anything produced in Canada, or anything that incorporates Canadian imagery, symbolism or content into its design. This could include a wide range of material produced in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, United States, Britain, etc.

Examples of Canadian images and content incorporated into designs from outside of Canada are included in this lecture. A copy of the Maclean's Magazine article titled American Lite Is That Our Future? is included in your Coursepack.

Sources: Coupland, Maclean's Magazine, November 25, 2002, p. 22

3. Bonjour/Welcome!


The Course

The Canadian (Design+Craft) (History+Theory) Project began years ago when I first began collecting Canadian design and craft. This research collection of hundreds of books, journals, magazines, catalogues, brochures, postcards, labels and other ephemera has been used as a basis for this course.

Fifteen online Lecture-Books share this research and collection. Each week a lecture-book will present Canadian designers, craftspeople, storytellers, historians, scholars, and workers concerned with interpreting, collecting, preserving and perpetuatig Canadian Design and Craft. Thanks to the Inukshuk Foundation and so many others for their contribution to the course (see acknowledgements).


3.1. Adventure Along the Trans-Canada Highway


Course Inspired by Trans-Canadian Tour, Research and Collecting

In the tradition of trans-Canadian tours, either by rail or by car, this course explores applied arts across the regions of Canada from earliest times to the present.

A summer journey from West to East and return provided images, information and experiences that were added to this course.

During the trans-Canadian journey, over 200 individual designers, craftspeople and others concerned with Canadian design and craft were interviewed.

The road side restaurant sign depicted here welcomes visitors between Quebec and New Brunswick.

Academic and theoretical information will complement references to popular, folkloric Canadian vernacular.

3.2. Cartier Entices Donnacona on Board his Vessel, 1536

Interpretation of Canada's First Nations and Canadian History

Early Canadian illustration designs depict First Nations culture to educate and/or, to advertise products. Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada Limited, 1924, issued this tobacco card (cards were inserted as advertising into cigarette packages).

The series of cards included themes such as Canadian flora, fauna, and other aspects of Canadian culture. You will learn more about the tradition of Tobacco cards and other forms of illustration, advertising, graphic design and ephemera in the coming weeks.

Page Links:

3.3. First Nations Design and Craft

Diverse Origins and Development of Canadian Design and Craft

The artefacts of First Nations, and earliest explorers, migrants and settlers reflect diverse origins of many Canadian design traditions.

Lectures may include references to geography, anthropology, ethnography along with social, cultural and economic perspectives. This Kwakwala-speaking woman from the coast of British Columbia is shown here wearing large abalone earrings and a shredded cedar bark cape. The abalone is larger that local kind, and may have been imported from California through the extensive trading networks that linked the Northwest Coast in the pre-contact era".



3.4. Pierre Eliot Trudeau, Prime Minister, 1968-1980

Cultural Mosiac

As stated by Pierre Trudeau, “The government will support and encourage the various cultures and ethnic groups that give structure and vitality to our society. They will be encouraged to share their cultural expressions and values with other Canadians and so contribute to a richer life for us all.?

Visit the Multiculture Canada website below for more information on the concept of a cultural mosaic and the significance of this policy.

3.5. The Great Divide: Alberta/British Columbia


The Environment and Resources

The Great Divide is the geographic point where all waters flow either west to the Pacific Ocean or east to the Atlantic Ocean. Displays at the picnic area describe this phenomenon which may be seen in action as the creek separates mid-flow.

The Great Divide is located west of Lake Louise on the border between Alberta and British Columbia. The diverse geography of Canada plays an important role in regard to design and craft. Antonio Gaudi, the Spanish architect noted that “originality is to return to the region,” and that originality is what you do with what surrounds you.

The land, water, skies, flora, fauna, and the vast resources of this young nation, Canada, provide unlimited creative possibilities for designers and craftspeople. These resources are not unlimited. Hence, the challenge to current and future applied artists: How to do more with less with sustainable materials respecting the environment and resources of Canada.
Greenpeace, David Suzuki, scientists and actiivists have branded Canada as a centre for environmental issues.

Suzuki and Dressler commented in their book Good News for Change: Hope for a Troubled Planet (chapter titled Making Money Like a Bee), "In fact, everyone does know what this word means (sustainability); it's just that no one knows exactly what it looks like in practice."

Page Links:

3.6. Dominion Postcard, c. 1890

Foreign Depiction of Dominion Geography

For information about formation of the Dominion, earlier and more recent aspects of Canadian history, including references to the Domininon and other periods in the History of Canada visit the History of Canada website.

This postcard was an advertisement for Arbuckle Bros. Coffee Co. New York City. Like many images depicting aspects of Canadian culture and environment, this card was part of a series representing over thirty other nations.

Postcards, magazines and other international paper ephemera concerned with Canadian content may not printed in Canada.

Many “Canadian” items have come from the United Kingdom, the United States and other nations with large printing operations and global markets. Like other printed ephmera, postcards produced abroad may incorporate images of Canadian flora, fauna, and other natural features, as well as regional social and cultural activities.

Page Links:

3.7. Cultural Mosaic

Cultural Mosaic-Canada

3.8. Multiculturalism, Design and Craft

Ethnicity and Canadian Design

Some Canadian design and craft originates from the diffusion of other cultures that Canadian designers experience when they travel abroad to produce and market their products.

Visit the Ethnic Diversity Survey website for more information about Canadian ethnicity.

The Ethnic Diversity Survey was developed by Statistics Canada in partnership with the Department of Canadian Heritage to provide information on the ethnic and cultural backgrounds of people in Canada and how these backgrounds relate to their lives today. Today, more than ever, Canadian designers and craftspeople work globally to design, produce and market their work.

3.9. Maple Leaf

The Maple Leaf Forever

What images and symbols identify Canada? Listed here are the most popular images associated with Canada. In the lecture “Canadian Icons and Images, the origins and significance of these images will be considered.

This 1904 postcard celebrated the song, considered by many to be the athem for Canada; “The Maple Leaf Forever.

Penned appropriately enough in 1867, Canada's Confederation year, The Maple Leaf Forever enthusiastically celebrates our history and European roots.

3.10. Maple Leaf Music


The Maple Leaf Forever, Composer: Alexander Muir, Artist: Knickerbocker Quartet, 1914

In days of yore, from Britain's shore,
Wolfe, the dauntless hero came,
And planted firm Britannia's flag,
On Canada's fair domain.
Here may it wave, our boast, our pride,
And joined in love together,
The thistle, shamrock, rose entwine,
The Maple Leaf forever!

The Maple Leaf, our emblem dear,
The Maple Leaf forever!
God save our King, and Heaven bless,
The Maple Leaf forever!

3.11. Mounties

Thanks to Hollywood for Branding the Mounties

This American-made label-brand was used to sell ginger ale in the 1950s.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Hollywood made hundreds of movies about Mounties (Royal Canadian Mounted Police). These films usually featured a red-coated Mountie of honesty and justice who saved innocents.

The Mounties were known in popular culture as paragons of virtue, who could never be turned from honour and justice. Some Mounties in popular culture include Dudley Do-Right, Sergeant Preston of the Yukon, and Benton Fraser.

An interesting side note is that Disney once owned the Mounties image. The Mounties still enjoy a prominent place in Canadian and international culture.

3.12. Canadian Club

Canadian Club Brands Canada

Canadian Club branded the image of Canada and Canadians through illustrated ads that featured Canadian sportmen and celebrated the natural beauty of Canadian wilderness, flora and fauna.

Canadian Club ads portrayed Canada and Canadians as sophisticated, worldly and different from their neighbours to the south.

This black and white engraved ad was featured in the Illustrated London News, July 16, 1894.

3.13. Canadian Rant

I Am Canadian: The Rant Ad

(actor clears throat; his speech becomes progressively more emphatic)

Hey. I'm not a lumberjack,
or a fur trader...
and I don't live in an igloo
or eat blubber, or own a dogsled...
and I don't know Jimmy, Sally or Suzy from Canada,
although I'm certain they're really, really nice.

I have a prime minister,
ot a president.
I speak English and French,
not American.
And I pronounce it “about,not “aboot".

I can proudly sew my country's flag on my backpack.
I believe in peace keeping, not policing.
Diversity, not assimilation,
and that the beaver is a truly proud and noble animal.
A toque is a hat.
A chesterfield is a couch.
And it is pronounced “zed, not “zee",

Canada is the second largest landmass!
The first nation of hockey!
And the best part of North America!

My name is Joe!
And I am Canadian!

3.14. Beaver

Baron de Lahontan and Early Images of the Beaver in North America

The Baron de Lahontan came to Canada in 1683, as an officer in the army. The colourful career of the baron included the book titled Voyages, published in 1703. The artist included an illustration of a crocodile in the river. Lahontan's descriptions of the beaver in this early account are somewhat exaggerated (as is the crocodile illustration).

The beaver was included in the armorial bearings of the City of Montréal when it was incorporated as a city in 1833. Sir Sandford Fleming assured the beaver a position as a true national symbol when he featured it on the first Canadian postage stamp–the Three-Penny Beaver of 1851.

3.15. Hockey

Crafted Wood Hockey Player, Nova Scotia

Folk art, tourist souvenirs and other artisan-produced craft and design, often reflect the spirit of a place.

In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and other Atlantic provinces, boat builders, wood workers, and others, some retired and others wanted to earn extra money (particularly during the Depression of the 1920s and early 1930s).

Folk art like the Hockey Player depicted here are not only popular with tourists but are included in serious folk art collections.

The tourist souvenirs contribute to the livlihood of artisans working in cottage industries. Folk art and other forms of vernacular design will be discussed in future lectures.

The Canadian Moose is a Web-based shop that sells “Canadian" products. Some are quite “kitschy" and others just plain “bad". The site has articles on such themes as the disputed origins of hockey in Canada.

Page Links:



O Canada: The National Athem (based upon the 1908 version)

O Canada! Where pines and maples grow,
Great Prairies spread, and lordly rivers flow.
Thou art the land, O Canada,
From East to Western Sea!
The land of hope for all who toil,
The land of liberty!

O Canada! O Canada!
O Canada, We stand on guard for Thee,
O Canada, We stand on guard for Thee!

4. Flags, Crests and Official Designs

4.1. West Coast Designs

Aboriginal Heraldry

When most folk think of heraldry, they think only of the heraldry brought with them by European immigrants to the this country—largely English or Scottish in its traditions. However, Canada had a heraldic tradition among the West Coast First Nations tribes. This system, typified most strongly by the Tsimshian people but also found among such groups as the Nootka, Kwakiul, and Haida nations, is in many ways true heraldry. The West Coast crest system has experienced a dramatic rebirth in recent years.

4.2. Fleur-de-lys


Symbol of French Sovereignty

The fleur-de-lys was a symbol of French sovereignty in Canada from 1534, when Jacques Cartier landed in Gasp?and claimed the newly explored territory in name of Francis I of France. The royal arms of France, with its three gold fleurs-de-lys on a blue field, were displayed when French explorers claimed new land in North America. In 1948, the Quebec government adopted the “fleurdelise as its provincial flag.

4.3. British Colonies Flag

The Royal Union Flag (1606-1800)

The Royal Union Jack flew above British Colonies from Newfoundland to the Gulf of Mexico.

The St. George's cross (England) and St. Andrew's Cross were first combined to create the Royal Union Flag.

In 1801, the diagonal Cross of St. Patrick, red on white, was incorporated to form the British Flag, known as the Union Jack.

4.4. Design of the British Flag

The Union Jack

The History of Our Flag was an early “interactive?brochure
presented by Laura Secord Candy Shops (Canada) during World War I.

How We Got Our Flag notes that the combinations of St. George's cross (England), the St. Patrick's cross (Ireland) and the St. Andrew's cross (Scotland) were combined to produce the Union Jack.

By unfolding the the elements of the flag you better understand the origins of the design elements combined in the creation of the Union Jack.

4.5. The Loyalist Flag

Red Canadian Ensign (1870-1965)

After the American Revolution, those colonists who remained loyal to the Crown and fought under the Red Ensign settled in many parts of what are now Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The Red Ensign is often referred to as the flag of Canada's United Empire Loyalists.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, the shield of the Red Ensign featured the arms of the seven provinces then in the Confederation.

In 1924, the Canadian government replaced the unofficial shield with the shield of the coat of arms of Canada.

This new version was approved for use on Canadian government building abroad. In Canada, the Canadian Red Ensign flew over federal buildings from 1945 until 1965, when it was replaced with the red and white maple leaf flag.

4.6. Patrick Reid, Director, Exhibition Commission, Ottawa, 1960s


Click on play button to start movie:

Canadian Flag Design Competiton, 1964

Patrick Reid recalls the days and hours leading to the final design of the Canadian flag. Rick Archbold, author of I Stand for Canada: The Story of the Maple Leaf Flag, noted, “In June 1963, almost a hundred years after its birth as a country, Canada still didn’t have a flag. Yet Prime Minister Lester Pearson’s recent election promise to give Canada its own distinct official banner seemed like a promise to commit political suicide. Tensions in the country were already running high and every previous attempt at choosing a flag had ended in bitter stalemate. Only six months later, however, after one of the most tempestuous debates in parliamentary history and some adroit political maneuvering, the House of Commons voted to adopt the red-and-white maple leaf flag.?/p>

4.7. Canadian Flag Competition

George Stanley, Flag Artist

These two designs in red pencil are from the letter George Stanley sent to John Matheson, a member of the Flag Committee, on March 23, 1964.

After lengthy debates and arguments within the committee, a number of finalists were selected. There was considerable debate regarding a 13-point flag. During a meeting at the official residence of the prime minister, Jacque Saint-Cyr sketched the 11-point flag that appealed to Prime Minister Pearson, Matheson and Patrick Reid (commissioner for exhibits for the federal government). After lengthy debate in Parliament, the flag was approved December 15, 1965.

4.8. Canadian Flag Adopted, December 15th, 1964

Comments on the

Historian Arthur Lower noted in 1967, “Since the adoption of the new Canadian flag, something very interesting has happened to the Canadian psyche, something that probably cannot yet be put into words...There is nothing in this of turning backs on a hated past, nothing suggesting that old ties were irksome.

The point is simply that the country is growing up, coming to see itself as an entity, taking the interest in itself that any organism, to be healthy must. Each time that the average citizen looks at the new flag, he unconsciously says to himself, 'That's me'. Visit this link to learn about the Canadian Flag: http://www.flagforcanada.ca/

4.9. Provincial and Territorial Flags

Traditional Heraldry and New Symbols

The Nunavut's flag is the newest, granted in 1999 by Governor General Romeo LeBlanc. Newfoundland's flag was designed by noted Canadian artist Christopher Pratt. Certain provincial flags incorporate traditional symbols associated with heraldry or use new symbols that may be associated with the region its landscape, flora and fauna. All provinces and territories have an official flower and bird. Some have official minerals, trees and animals.

4.10. National, Provincial and Territorial

Canadian Coats of Arms

In Canada, the governor general grants coats of arms to cities, towns, schools, universities, hospitals, churches, private companies, individuals, cultural organizations and others. Coats of arms are symbols of authority, ownership and identity and are part of the national honours system. Designed by heralds in the governor general’s office, coats of arms are simple, yet colourful, and filled with symbols that have great meaning for their owners.

5. Design, Craft, Folk/Vernacular Art

5.1. Stephen Inglis, Director General, Research and Collections, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau, Quebec


Canadian Folk Art Vernacular

Stephen Inglis refers to the collections of Canadian folk art at the Museum of Civilization. Labeled popular art, these designs are many times associated with rural, working people, eccentric geniuses and vernacular of the region.

Visit the website below, prepared by the Museum of Civilization. The website's menu includes The Front Lawn, The Barnyard, The Porch, Rooftops, The Pond, The Venus Corner, Fantasy, O Canada, Fence Posts, The Private Backyard Garden, Contemporary “Faux Folk Art.

Page Links:
This Other Eden

5.2. Treasury of Canadian Craft

Art, Design, Craft

Distinctions between design and craft continued to be argued. Both “design?and “craft?are included in this survey. Much or what is included in the course may be termed “applied arts.?Most have practical applications and are primarily concerned with function and communication. Of course, the "fine arts" involves communication and function as well, but is primarily concerned with self expression.

Some argue that the distinctions between these categories are becoming less and less meaningful. Others, argue the importance of defining and distinguishing these terms.

Your Coursepack contains an article by Paul Mathieu, Potter. He contrasts and comments on differences and similarities of the three aspects of creativity.

The Treasury of Canadian Craft Exhibition included examples of craft from earliest times to the 1990s.

A number of articles from this publication are included in your Coursepack.

5.3. Stacey Wakefield, Director Exhibit Interpretation, The Canada Museum of Science and Technology, Ottawa, Ontario


Canadian Invention and Design–Crossing Boundaries

Stacey Wakeford, Director Exhibit Interpretation, The Canada Museum of Science and Technology, Ottawa, Ontario, discusses how Canadian inventors, designers and innovators develop partnerships that cross borders. More and more Canadian designers work with international teams. Whether it be with the United States, China, Taiwan, Korea, other Asian and European partnerships, many Canadian designers work with foreign scientists, technologists businesses and governments to develop and produce designs.