Week 5 B -Graphics, Typography & Package Design

Site: Emily Carr University's Moodle Site
Course: DHIS-310-SU90-2016-Canadian Design History/Theory - Term II
Book: Week 5 B -Graphics, Typography & Package Design
Printed by: Guest user
Date: Tuesday, 28 June 2022, 2:42 AM


Week Ten Graphics, Typography & Package Design

Table of contents

1. Printers, Broadsides & Typography

1.1. Sam Carter Intro


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Introduction: Graphics, Typography, and Package Design

Welcome to Week Nine! We will explore the ealiest printers, the development of publcations from broadsides to brochure. We will see stamps, currency, labels and other forms of graphics. We end with a view of Canadian posters.

2. Apprentice Typesetter, Edmonton Bulletin, Edmonton, Alberta, 1904

Three Phase of Printing History

"Developments in the Canadian printing industry, both commercial and newspaper, fall into three categories: composition (setting up or "composing" what is to be printed); printing (making multiple copies, using ink, paper, and a printing press); and marketing (the advertising revenue and circulation volume which pay for the operation)...There are three major phases to the development of the printing industry in Canada: manual printing (1751-1840), mechanical printing (1840-1970), and electronic printing (1970- )."

Visit the link provided, The Canadian Encyclopedia online, choose Printing Industry for an overview on printing in Canada.

2.1. Ordination Serman Cover Page, Anthony Henry, Printer, Nova Scotia, 1770

Green Arrives and Bushell Continues

"Canadian printing is the linear descendant of American printing, and its birth dates from almost the middle of the 18th century. Thoughout the one hundred and fifty years prior to 1763, during which it flourished on this continent, French civilization had many glorious achievements to its credit, the happy influences of which are yet felt; but in the study of these many brilliant manifestations of its vitality, we are nevertheless conscious of an amazing deficiency. Even until the beginning of the English regime in Canada, and at a period when other civilized races were awakening, beneath the pressure of progressive growith of ideas, to the need of new means of expression, the French colonies in North America had nothing with which to express their feelings and thoughts except a limited language and rudimentary handwriting....By 1750 printing was already long-rooted in New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Massachusetts."

Bartholomew Green Jr. a trained printer, son and grandson of printers arrived in Halifax, autumn, 1751. After only five weeks after his arrival he would die. John Bushell picked up the heritage left by Green and opened a shop in Halifax, January 1752.

The Sermon was the first religious work produced in Nova Scotia.

2.2. Akitami, Broun & Giromore, Quebec City, Quebec 1770.

Early 1st Nations Language

"A unique copy of the first book ever printed in the Abnaki language." The book was printed in Quebec City from the press of Brown and Gilmour.

"Abnaki, or Western Abenaki, is an Algonquian language spoken today by only a few elders in Canada.}

2.3. Almanach de Quebec, William Brown, Quebec Ctiy, Quebec, 1780

One of North America's earliest newspaper was the Alamanach de Quebec

"It is the general opinion that printing only began in Canada, properly so-called, after the country had been conquered by the English. Some bibliographers, however, find it hard t concede that, during the whole century and a half of its existence, New France could have remained deprived of useful tool which other civilized nations, especially its own neighbours, vied with each other in obtaining. They claim that at least one press was in operation toward the close of the French regime, and we must admit that some of the arguments which they marshall in support of their theory cannot be lightly rejected. It would be difficult to write the history of the beginnings of printing in Canada without first considering this preliminary question, which is, moreover, of the greatest interest.

One thing is certain, that, even in the very early days of the colony, the question of introducing a printing press into New France had been considered more than once. The original missionaries, in the interests of the Gospel, were the first to think of it, as did the Franciscans in Mexico and the Puritan ministers in New England....The Sulpicians in Montreal appear to have cherished the same ambition in 1683, as the Jesuits in Quebec did in 1765, but with no success. The reply which M. deBelmont received from M. Tronson, the Superior in Paris, deserves, we think to be quoted: " It is believed to be useless to send you type for printing, as requested by you, because we are advised that you would be unable to use it, and that books could not give adequate instruction to enable you to employ it successfully."

The nearest approach to the introduction of printing into New France is the attempt which we find made sixty years later, in 1749, by M. de la Galissonniere. Weh he raised the matter with the Minister of Marine, that official contented himself with putting forward the statement that the press would be eminently useful in the colony for the promulgation of the laws and regulations; but, being himself a literary man and a savant, he must have also thought it was time , in view of the state of civilization existing in New France, to provide means for the dissemination of ideas. Unfortunately, once again, the central authority held to the usual method of temporising. The official reply was that is was necessary to wait until such time as a printer should present himself, and that when this occured consideration would be given to the conditions upon which the privilege might be granted to him."

The Gazette de Quebec was received by 143 subscribers on 21st June, 1764. The paper concluded publication until 1874.

William Brown printed the Almanacs of Quebec from 1870 to 1841 with the exception of three breaks, in the years 1789. 1790, and 1793 concerning which is still some mystery.

Visit the link provided for more details about "North America's first newspaper."

2.4. Montreal Gazette, Fleury Mesplet, Montreal, Quebec, 1778

First Printing Shop in Montreal

Fleury Mesplet established the first printing shop in Montreal, 1776. Mesplet established the Gazette de Montreal in 1785. "It is the same newpaper which, after being in French only, then during a certain number of years in both languages, is still appearing daily under the name The Gazette.

Visit the link provided for more details on printing in Eastern Canada.

2.5. A Briefview of the Religious Tenets and Sentiments , John Howe, Printer, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1782

Six Newspapers in Nova Scotia

Anthony Henry was successor of John Bushell. Eventually, Henry's apparent loyalties to the American Revolution resulted in the Halifax Gazette, printed by Henry, was entrusted to Robert Flecher, who had recently arrived form London with with a complete typographical outfit. Competition soon arrived in Halifax as Loyalist arrived . "Margaret Draper, that heroine of American journalism, who had courageously published her newspaper, the Newsletter, up the very day that Boston was evacuated by he British forces, was the first to arrive in Halifax with her printing outfit. She only remained a few months in that city before she returned to England, where she died; but she left behind her the young John Howe, whom she had brought with her from Boston, and this deed is enough to make her short stay in the capital of Nova Scotia a memorable. one." Eventually there were three newspapers in Halifax during this era: The Nova Scotia Gazette, of Anthony Henry; the Halifax Journal, of John Howe, and the Weekly Chronicle, of William Minns. "At the same time, in the little town on Shelburne-which ws then on a fair way to become an important centre, but whose meteoric glitter was soon distinguished- foung the means of supporting three other newpapers: The Royal American Gazette, the Port Roseway Gazette, and the Nova Scotia Packet." Pictured here is one of the many works from the press of John Howe (Printer, Halifax Journal). Broadsheets, posters, advertisements and official documents would be printed in the shop. "John Howe was father of famous printer and statesman, Hon. Joseph Howe."


2.6. Wonders of the West, James Lynee Alexander, Toronto, Ontario, 1825

Early Years in Ontario

The eariliest press in Ontario arrived in 1798 at the command of Lieutenant Governor Simcoe. Titus Geer Simons prepared the move of the press from Niagara to York.

"In the early years of York the press operated for government, printing editions as large as 1,600 copies of public notices, land grants, oaths of allegiance, and other instruments for the orderly settlement of a new province...Within the first decade, the king's printers, who operated the press at York until 1820, began to supply private reading with a substantial alamanac in 1803 and the first known sermon in 1805...By the late 1820s communities of native readers could own a schoolbook in Chippewa or the first seven chapters of Matthew printed at York in English and Chippewa edition of 2,000 copies....In a printing history of Toronto the 1820s could form a chronology of firsts, with publications by benevolent societies, banks, and schools, including the charter for King's College. Methodists and Quakers took to print as did promoters of canals and steam navigation. A local nurseryman distributed free an eighteen-page catalogue of his stock, and two books of Canadian verse were published. "

2.7. Cree Spelling Book, James Evans, Norway House, Manitoba, 1841

Genesis of Canadian Type Design

"In 1841, James Evans, a stubborn Methodist missionary, designed the first typographical images in Norway House, a settlement in northern Manitoba. Having spent the previous two years preparing his now famous Cree spelling-book, Evans felt that it was time to get a press, proper type, paper and ink to finish the project of evangelizing the Crees.

The Hudson's Bay Company was less enthusiastic to relinquish absolute control of communications, having had a practical monopoly of transportation in the area. Evan's efforts wre blocked based on 'excessive weight of the required materials'. Rather curiously, in 1834, a Catholic missionary, the Abbe George-Antoine Belcourt, was also denied a similar request in spite of having 'opened a school for the instruction of the little savages...'

But in James Evans, The Hudson's Bay Company met its match. He refused to be stopped by any obstacle. This courageous pioneer, in fact, designed the type, carved the molds and with a crude knife, cast the type from lead melted down from the lining of tea boxes and made the ink form chimney-soot. As well, he constructed his own press and printed, on birch bark split into small leaves, the spelling-book for the Crees, 'Norway House, 1841' , will remain the genesis of Canadian type design."

2.8. Proclaimation Reward, Toronto, Ontario, 1837


"The earliest use of the term "broadsitde" cited by The Oxford English Dictionary is 1575. A broadside according to Webster's dictionary, is a large sheet of paper printed on one side. Its style and contents provide an index of the political, social, economic and artisitic climate of the times.

Broadsheets serve as valuable reminders of many significant historical events and the earliest Canadian ones date back to the beginnings of printing in North American colonies-in Halifax around 1764 and in Montreal in 1776. Except for some commercial advertisements, the majority of them were proclamations and bills. The King's Printer was responsible for official publications and issued licenses to job printers. The government's patronage frequently helped printers to finance their operations but often restricted them in what they could print. In time due to political unrest more and more privately owned, independent presses were established, and the number of news agents and broadside-mongers grew proportionately. By 1890, over two thousand people derived their livelihoods by working in Toronto's seventy-four printing establishments.

Election posters, and government proclamations altered their styles, and traditional layout and type faces were retained until well into the 1930s. Even though typesetting and printing methods had changed, the physical appearances of these documents remained constant for over one hundred and fifty years..

Broadsides were not regularly illustrated until the middle of the nineteenth century. Before that time crests and seals, usually at the head of the opening paragraph of a proclamation, were only decoration."

2.9. Jenny Lind Broardside, Henry Rowsell, Toronto, Ontario, 1853

The Visit of Famous Singer

"This is one of the best of three broadsides printed by Henry Rowsell on the occasion of Jenny Lind's visit to Toronto.

Visit the link provided to view an extensive collection of pamphets and broadsides at the University of Toronto Fisher Library Digital Collection.

2.10. Proclaimation, Day of Mourning, Queen,1901

Mayor of Toronto's Proclamation

Framed in mourning borders, and set in heavy condensed and spurred types that would not have been out of place early in Victoria's reign, this stately public notice is the mayor's proclaimation of a day of mourning for the Queen. Toronto's 1894 coat of arms underscores the soleminity of official mourning."

2.11. The Beggar's Opera, J. E. H. McDonald, Toronto, Ontario, 1923

J. E. H. McDonald, Designer, Educator, Aritist

The broadside pictured here was designed by J.E. H. MacDonald, perhaps the one Canadian who has contributed the most to graphic design and illustration in Canada. He was a member of the Group of Seven, a designer educator and artist. We will learn more about MacDonald, later in this lecture.

"While in the first year as [Arts and Letters] Club president J. E. H. MacDonald was appointed principal of the [Ontario] College of Art (March 11th, 1929). The load was a very heavy one, particularly because he continued as head of the Graphics and Design Department. "

2.12. Perth County Festival Broadside, William Rueter, Ontario, 1976

Broadsides Printed Before 1866 May Outlast Recent Printing

"Ironically broadsides printed before 1866, when wood pulp was first used in Canada for paper manufacturing, will likely outlast posters printed after that date, because of sulphuric acid employed in pulp-making ensures that deterioration of pf non-rag paper. The most expensive coated bond stock has a circumscribed like expectancy compare to rag stock; consequently, it may be that our descendents will judge our commercial printing efforts by the early broadsides rather than by the posters we manufacture today."

Pictured here is is a contemporary broadside use to advertise the Second Biennial Perth County Slumgullion Festival.

2.13. Barbarian Press, Mission. British Columbia

Barbarian Press History

Barbarian Press was established in 1977 in Kent, England, where the Elsteds worked with Graham Williams at the Florin Press. Having acquired three flatbed hand presses – an 1850 super royal Hopkinson & Cope Albion, an 1833 foolscap folio Barrett bench Albion, and an 1854 foolscap folio Sherwin & Cope Imperial – together with many cases of type, they returned to their native Canada in 1978 and set up shop in Mission, British Columbia, about 50 miles east of Vancouver in the Fraser Valley, where they remain. To the English hand presses they have added Vandercook Universal I and Universal III proofing presses, two Chandler & Price vertical platen presses, much more type, and a small hand bindery."

Visit the link provided to visit the Canadian Private Presses website, Library Archives Canada website. Learn more about Private Presses in Canada, by choosing Seven Presses. This site provides an excellent glossary of terms associated with graphic design.

2.14. Hand Lettering, J.E. H. MacDonald, Toronto, Ontario, c.1910

Hand Lettering, Calligraphers, Scribes

(Left) Roman
(Right) Gothic
(Bottom Right) Italic

Visit the link provided to view the Cynscribe Canadian Calligraphy Links. There is a list of Canadian calligraphers (Scribes) with links to their websites.

2.15. Le Livre des Engans, Thomas Cary & Cie., Quebec, 1834

An Early Canadian Alphabet Book

"This work is a small, but beautifully illustrated primer for children to learn about the alphabet, numbers, basic syllabic sounds, simple words, and animals. It has a paper cover and is twenty-four pages long."

Visit the link provided to view the collections and information provided by the U.B.C. Library, Rare Books Collection.

2.16. Coachhouse Press


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Alana Wilcox, Editor, Coach House Press, Toronto

"After three decades of publishing and printing documented by the hundreds of distinctive books, periodicals, posters, post cards and other printed ephemera, The Coach House Press has assumed the position as the most important writers' press founded in Canada since the 1960s. From its inception, the Press has played a dual role: Coach House as printer, defining and expanding the aesthetics and technology of small press book design in this country, and, Coach House as editor, publishing a number of seminal works in Canadian post-modern literature."

Coach House Press's studio is now Coach House Books home. Visit the link provided to learn about Coach House Press and its Canadian legacy.

2.17. Inuit Alphabet/Digital Version, Wil Hudson, Cape Dorset, c. 1856, Digital Version, K. Srinivasan, Quebec,1993

Inuit Alphabet From Cast Type to Digital

"Wil Hudson's re-cutting of the Inuit Alphabet, which was originally introduced in 1855, followed closely the existing Cree and Ojibwa models. It was "cut in Toronto and probably cast in Cape Dorsett for an Inuit cultural society. Wil Hudson ran his printing and publishing business in Cape Dorsett for eight years."

Visit this link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Aboriginal_syllabics

2.18. Typography (ie) 61

A Subtle and Quite Dicernible Difference

"Judge's Report:
Frank Davies, MTDC
They are better--even the mediocre books are better and the bad books look worse and worse by contrast. As for the best, they are really excellent. It has been very gratifying to anyone aware of the value of well-designed books to follow the book sections of the annual typographic exhibitons. Each year has shown a subtle but quite discernible difference.
The first show, in 1958, had very few books that were consistently good from jacket through case and prelims to text pages; the extended decoration through prelims that was to be so strong later had just begun to appear. The jury that year deplored 'the publisher who got into design act, the printer who couldn't run ink evenly, the binder who ran his folder so fast that not two margins were the same', and on the evidence before them this was just, though very unpopular criticism. 1959 saw a sudden self-consciousness. It was as if the designer, finding his voice was being heard for the first time, had rushed off to take elocution lessons so that he could e-nun-ci-ate un-for-get-tably....1960 showed more maturity and confidence. The Canadian book was recognized abroad 'for its interesting format'. A few designers now dominated and their individual approaches were clearly apparent. Text books were generally depressingly bad, though earlier there had been signs of hope. Now, in 1961, the gimmicks are gone. Text-books still languish. The work of two men dominates: Robert Reid of Vancouver, both for his own designs and for the wonderful work his students are producing; and Frank Newfeld of Toronto. Their books are a joy...And what of 1962? Our book industry is striding foward and we must wait, eager and patient, to see what happens next."

2.19. Cartier Typeface, Carl Dair, Rod McDonald, Toronto, 1957-2000

First Canadian Type for Text, Celebrating Canada's Centennial

"This is a story of two men, who shared a common goal, one knowingly, one not. Through their combined efforts these strangers would create for all the first truly Canadian typeface, Cartier Roman & Cartier Book.

In 1957, designer, Carl Dair was chosen to create a new and distinctive Canadian typeface. In 1966 the first proof of Cartier (roman & italic) was published as 'the first Canadian type for text composition' to mark the Centenary of Canadian Confederation." Unfortunately Dair had only completed roman (upper & lower case) and italic (lower case only). Some say that due to his ego he would not allow the type studios to complete it for him. So his vision along with that of Cartier died with him in 1968, or so we thought.

It's 1973 and Rod McDonald enters the picture. Though their paths had never crossed, McDonald would learn about Dair's work through the company Mono Lino typesetting. It being the oldest typesetting company in the country and holder of the exclusive rights to Carl Dair's Cartier typeface. Rod McDonald began the redesign of Cartier in the fall of 1998. By January, 2000 Cartier Roman and Italic were redesigned into working typefaces. "

2.20. Caxton, Les Usherwood, Toronto, Ontario, 1984

Art Director's Club Created Annula Les Usherwood Award

"Les Usherwood was the most prolific type designer in Canadian history. He was trained in Kent, England as a lettering artist, emigrated to Canada in 1957, and practised his art in Toronto at Photo Engravers & Electrotypers, Art Associates and later at Art & Design Studios. In 1968 he started Typsettra Ltd. in partnership with David Thomason. "

Usherwood's best known design is Caxton. He died in 1983 at the age of 51 from a heart attack. In his honor the Toronto Art Directors Club created the annual Les Usherwood Award to recognize creative achievements in the communication arts industry. The first one, in 1983, was awarded to Les Usherwood posthumously. "


2.21. Fabian Massey Typeface, Nicholas Fabian, Toronto, Ontario, c. 1980s

Design of over 60 Typefaces Since the Mid-Sixties

Nicholas Fabian, an independent type designer, has designed 60 typefaces since the mid 1960s, covering a wide historical scope, all under the 'FABIUS FONTS' trademark. Some of his best known typefaces are Uncials, Alien, Inverso, Dürer, Massey, Classic, Millennium, and the Studio series.

Visit the link provided to learn more about Candian typefaces.

2.22. Mambo, Val Fullard, Toronto, 1993

Canadian Fonts

1967. Cartier designed by Carl Dair as a gift to Canada on the occasion of the centennial

1972. Caxton designed by Les Usherwood

1981. Flange designed by Les Usherwood

1984. Usherwood designed by Les Usherwood

1990. Mambo designed by Val Fullard

1993. Fontesque designed by Nick Shinn

2001. Richler commissioned by The Giller Prize and Random House of Canada anddesigned by Nick Shinn

2.23. Richler Font Family, Nick Shinn, Toronto, Ontario, 2001

Typeface In Memory of Canadian Writer Mordecai Richler

"Nick Shinn has lived and worked in Toronto for 25 years. He is a design consultant, publishes his type designs, writes for Graphic Exchange magazine, and teaches at York University. He has designed 17 typeface families, the most popular of which is Fontesque. His Walburn and Brown typefaces appear daily in The Globe and Mail.

The Richler typeface was commissioned in memory of Mordecai Richler and created by Canadian type designer Nick Shinn. It is an original face, full of personality in the details, yet smooth in the composite effect. Up close, each letter is a study in thematic style, with a subtle, firmly crafted, slightly offbeat quality that mocks both artful pretension and mindless conformity."

3. Pioneers of Graphic Design

3.1. Toronto Art Students League


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Toronto Art Students League, Toronto, 1886

Robert Stacey talks about origins of graphic design education and the early days of the Toronto Art Students League, a precursor of Ontario College of Art and Design. "The League (art school) is rooted in Canadian art history. In 1876, a group of Toronto artists started an art school, which, after a series of name changes, is now know as the Ontario College of Art and Design. However, in 1886, OCAD's founders became disillusioned with government involvement and formally withdrew their support to launch another art school modeled on the recently formed Art Students League of New York. They called it Toronto Art Students' League. The Toronto League continued meeting until 1906 when the group disbanded. Students of the Arthur Lismer briefly revived the art school in 1927." In 1999, Bruce Francisco invisioned the current Art Students League of Toronto.

3.2. Grip Ltd., Studio, Toronto, January, 1891

Grip and Carlton Studios

"In Toronto, awareness of the progress made by the modern poster was registered by such forward-looking organizations as the Ontario Society of Artists and the Toronto Art Student's League. The League's members were, for the most part, professional illustrators and lithographers, or art students who realized that to make their livings they would have to join commercial art studios, the staffs of newspapers and magazines, or printing companies. From the date of its inception in 1886 the League's primary objective was the awakening of artists and the public to the possibilities of using the Canadian landscape as subject matter; but its leaders were also strongly affected by such contemporary trends as French Impressionism, the modern Scandinavian landscape shool, and art nouveau.
Toronto Lithographing Company Co., the Toronto Engraving Co., and Grip Ltd (pictured here) were adding to their printing facilities the services of illustrators and designers capable of producing artwork in the styles of their customers' choice. The idea of the modern commercial art studio housing under one roof draftsmen, photographers, plate-makers, layout-artists, copywriters, and advertising salesmen was imported to Great Britain in 1902. A.A. Martin, W. T. Wallace, T. G. Greene and Norman Price, who all became co-founders of London's Carlton Studios; other Canadians, including J.E.H. MacDonald, later briefly also joined the firm. "

(left to right)
Arthur Rossell (?), Stanley Kemp (?),
Rowley Murphy (?), Tom Thompson, W. S. Broadhead (standing), Arthur Lismer, Frederick Varley, J. E. H. MacDonald, unknown, unknown.

3.3. Sampson Mathews Prints


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Sampson Mathews Prints of Canadian Masterpieces and Posters

"Sampson Matthews was a well-known commercial art firm known for their prints of Canadian masterpieces. Among other well-known artists, Franklin Carmichael and A.J. Casson were employed by Sampson Matthews for over 20 years. Franklin Carmichael began working at Sampson Matthews in 1922 as head designer. In 1926 A.J. Casson began his 32-year career at Sampson Matthews, originally under the supervision of Carmichael. " Samson Mathew prints from well known Canadian painters and graphic artists were distributed throughout Canada to schools, government buildings, banks, churches and other public buildings during the first half of the twentieth century until after WWII.

3.4. Frank Viva Toronto


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Frank Viva, Toronto, Ontario

To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the The Advertising & Design Club of Canada, a retrospective show was organized under the auspices of the Institute of Contemporary Culture, Royal Ontario Museum. The ADCC sent out hundreds of letters to competition medalists from the past 50 years requesting samples of their award-winning work...selection was made by Dr. Howard Collinson, Head of the Institute of Contemporary Culture, and Virginia Wright, Curator of Western Art and Culture."

Frank Viva, then President of The Advertising and Design Club of Canada, represented the ADCC for this project.

Frank, a graduate of OCAD, is a founding partner at Viva Dolan Communication Design, a Toronto based firm that opened its doors in 1992. They develop branding strategy, and create marketing and corporate design/ communications for a broad range of international clients.

3.5. Clair Stewart Designs, Toronto, born 1910

Innovations Graphic Design, Canada

After studies at Ontario College of Art, Stewart travelled to London in 1932. There he worked in several of the more progressive agencies. More importantly, he met and learned form the great designers of the 20th century-people like E. McKnight Kauffer and Abram Games.

Stewart returned to Toronto-brimming with modern ideas and armed with innovative working methods-and began carving out a place for himself in the city's design community. He was working as a designer for McLaren and McCaul Ltd. whenthe outbreak of war in 1939 interrupted his career plans. He served in the Royal Canadian Air Force through the duration of the war.

Returning to civilian life, Stewart became an art director at Rolph, Clark, Stone, Ltd. and by the early 1950s, he was a force to be reckoned with in Canadian art direction and design. In 1960, when he co-founded Stewart and Morrison Ltd. with his great friend and ally Ted Morrison, his internationally recognized body of work was inspiring a whole new generation of designers. His influence was evident everywhere. As one of those younger admirers recently recalled: "If Clair decided it was cool to wear a pink shirt, soon everyone was wearing pink shirts."

Last, but not least among Clair Stewart's impressive list of accomplishments is the fact that he co-founded, in 1949, the Art Directors Club of Toronto.

3.6. Canadian National Railway Decal, Alan Flemming, Toronto, c. 1960s

An Impressive Career

"Allan R. Fleming, creator of CN's Logo Allan Fleming was barely 30 when he was recruited to come up with a fresh new logo for CN. Yet the young Canadian designer had already made a name for himself with the bold, lyrical quality of his graphic designs.

Born in Toronto in 1929, Fleming followed a rather unorthodox route to professional excellence.

He left art studies at Toronto's Western Technical School at 16 to work as a kind of apprentice designer at various firms in the city.

Then came further learning experiences in England, where he gleaned as much as he could from leading figures in the design world. Back in Canada, he joined the typographic firm Cooper and Beatty Ltd. in 1957 and was working there when the CN opportunity came his way in 1959.

Fleming left Cooper and Beatty in 1962 to become art director for Maclean's magazine. He was vice-president and director of creative services at MacLaren Advertising from 1963 to 1968, chief designer at the University of Toronto Press until 1976, then joined Burns and Cooper.

Fleming's work won him numerous awards throughout his career, not only in Canada but in the United States and at the international level. Yet he is no doubt best remembered as the creator of CN's logo. The inspired design certainly entrenched his reputation as one of Canada's most talented designers. At the same time, it heightened the profile of his profession, opening the way to greater creativity in countless design applications across the country.

3.7. Via Rail, Gottschalk and Ash, Montreal, Toronto, Zurich, Calgary, 1985

Gottschalk and Ash, Montreal, Toronto, Zurich, Calgary

"Over the years G+A has had the opportunity to design an impressive representation of Canada's definitive and commemorative stamps. Philatelic collectors elevate stamps well beyond their role as a form of currency to that of objects of desire. They represent a unique category of communications all on their own, where brevity of thought and excellence of design must work together in an instant to deliver glimpses of Canadian culture across the nation and around the world...

In 1885 it was the railway that made Canada a nation. Over a hundred years later, G+A helped rail travel link the country once again with a powerful, coordinated design program for VIA Rail.

An elegant, simple system of graphic communications was created and applied both inside and out of the trains themselves and the network of stations across the vast expanse of the Canadian landscape. No matter which language you spoke, no matter where you were coming from or where you were going. G+A's wayfinding and design system ensured there would always be some welcome familiarity on your travels. "

3.8. St. George Station Wayfinding, Paul Arthur, Toronto, Early 1990s


"Paul Arthur, a self-taught designer, was often credited with having invented the term “signage” in the early 60s, a distinction he regarded as dubious because it has given too many graphic designers, architects, and building owners the idea that putting up signs is all there is to wayfinding. His work for Expo 67 in Montreal first demonstrated the important role of signs in well-planned environments. His Toronto firm, VisuCom Limited, specialized in the development of visual and audible wayfinding solutions for complex environments. He was a fellow and founding member of the Society for Environmental Graphic Design (SEGD). He passed away in May 2001."

Arthur is credited along with architect Romedi Passini as first using the term "way-finding".
"Passini and Arthur described wayfinding as a two-staged process during which people must solve a wide variety of problems in architectural and urban spaces that involve both 'decision making" (formulating an action plan) and "decision executing" ( implementing the plan). "

Visit the link provided to learn more about Paul Arthur, Wayfinding and St. George Station

Page Links:
Paul Arthur Wayfinding

3.9. Bruce Mau Design, Greg Van Alstyne, Programme Director, Institute Without Boundaries, Toronto, Ontario, 2003


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Cross Disciplinary Design

"Since it inception in Toronto in 1985, Bruce Mau Design has gained international recognition for cross-disciplinary work. The studio provides expertise and innovation across a wide range of projects: identity and branding, research and conceptual programming, print design and production, environmental graphics, exhibition design, and product development. BMD collaborates with some of the world's leading architects, artists, writers, curators, academics, entrepreneurs, businesses and institutions. Recent projects include: a design and branding stategy with Candain retail giants Roots; Tree City, a project to transform Downsview Park in Toronto; STRESS, a multi-media installation about the limits of the human body; an Puente de Vida, the development of a museum of biodiversity in Panama City."

3.10. 1988 Oyympics Art Festival, Wei Yew, Edmonton, Alberta, 1988

East Meets West & Olympic Design Canada

"Wei Yew practiced graphic design in Singapore for many years before immigrating to Canada in and opening his own firm, Studio 3 Graphics, in 1979. Wei has extensive Olympic design experience. He was commissioned by former IOC President Samaranch to produce a centennial publication entitled The Olympic Image, he created logos for the Olympic Truce and for the Environmental Olympics, and Wei designed for the Calgary 1988 Olympic Arts Festival.
His works have won international design awards and have been published in various publications such as the prestigious magazine Communication Arts. Wei started his own publishing company, Quon Editions, which has produced best-selling design books such as Storks and Bonds, Noah's Art and Gotcha! The Art of the Billboard. He has served on the teaching staff at Grant MacEwan College and the eMedia Design School in Edmonton, and has adjudicated numerous design competitions, including the first-ever graphic design show in China. "

Visit the link provided to learn about Wei Yew and his work for the International Olympic Committee ( history of Olympic Design). Recently Wei Yew was a member of the Vancouver Whistler 2010 Logo jury.

3.11. Ray Mah-Graphic Communicator


Wait for the video to load and then click the Play button to start the video.

Ray Mah- Year of the Tiger Project

Ray Mah, graduate of ECI talks about Canadian design his work and projects such as the Year of the Tiger stamp project.. Visit this link:


3.12. Alcuin Society Book Design Awards Winner, Vancouver, Brtish Columbia, 2004

Past. Present & Future of Books

"The Alcuin Society is a voluntary association of people who care about the past, present and future of fine books. Founded in 1965 on the inititiative of Geoff Spencer and six other Vancouver bibliophiles, it is the only non-profit organization in Canada dedicated to the entire range of interests related to books and reading. These interests include authorship, publishing, book design and production, bookselling, book buying and collecting, printing, binding, papermaking, calligraphy and illustration."

Visit the link provided to learn about the Alcuin Society.

3.13. Fellows of the Society of Graphic Designers of Canada

Founded in 1956

"In 1956 a group of dedicated designers met in Toronto to form the Typographic Designers of Canada. In time, and concurrent with the development of the profession and the growth of professional practice in Canada, the need for a truly national organization of Graphic Designers was felt by practitioners in major centres across the country. Thanks to the efforts of a number of dedicated designers and design educators, negotiations between members of the original society, the federal government and designers from every region of the country culminated in the granting of a Federal Charter in 1976, and the Society of Graphic Designers of Canada was born. "

Visit the link provided to learn about history and activities associated with the Society of Graphic Designers of Canada. Review the "Fellows" section and its list of honoured Canadian graphic designers.

4. Stamps and Currency

4.1. Three Pence Beaver Stamp, Province of Canada, Ottawa, April 23, 1851

First Canadian Stamp

"For this first Canadian stamp, Sir Sandford Flemming suggested the picture of a beaver, saying that the animal was a symbol of the industry and economny of our land and people, and that the beaver was known for its hard work, as were Canadians. His choice marked a departure from the then current practice (only about ten years old remember) of representing the head of state on stamps; Queen Victoria had appeared on British and colonial stamps up until that time. On April, 23, 1851 the Province of Canada released its Three Pence Beaver."

Visit the link provided to learn about the 2001 reissue of the Beaver Stamp.

4.2. Vancouver Island and British Columbia Joint Issue Stamp, 1860- Fifth Prince Edward Island Stamp, 1862

Joint Issue Stamps

"Before confederation, one after another, the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Vancouver Island, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland produced their own stamps. In February, 1851, Sir Edmund Head, proposed that all British North American colonies use the same postage stamp, the different names of the colonies being the only distinguishing feature, HIs motion was rejected, but Nova Scotia and New Brunswick did join together to issue a series of postage stamps witht h same design in September, 1851."

4.3. Canada Postage, XMAS, Ottawa, 1898

First Christmas Stamp

"Every new stamp had to be approved by Queen Victoria. When the Postmaster General of Great Britain, the Duke of Norfolk, presented her with with the model of the stamp shown here with Canada at the centre, the Duke of Norfolk noted that the stamp was to come out on the pince's birthday. Queen Victoria asked, 'Which prince do you mean?' The Duke of Norfolk replied, 'The Prince of Peace, Ma'am.'

So it was on December 25th, 1898, the Imperial Post was established and Canada became the first country in the world to issue a Christmas stamp, inscribed 'XMAS1898.' A second inscription underneath reads. 'We hold a vaster Empire than has been,' a phrase taken from a song composed by Sir Lewis Morris in 1887 to celebrate Queen Victoria's Golden Jublilee."

4.4. Assorted Canadian Stamps, Ottawa, c. 1900

Canadian Stamp Archives

Visit the link provided to see and learn about Candian stamps and postal history. This well designed site presents Canadian stamps chronologically and according to provinces and territories.

4.5. Canadian National Exhibition Stamp, Michael Rafelson (Photographer), Ottawa, 2004

Celebrates the Centennial of the CNE

The Princes' Gates marks the entrance to the grounds of Toronto's Canadian National Exhibition (CNE), and is a landmark to generations of fair-goers. It's also appeared on a stamp once before. A graceful silhouette of the Princes' Gates was featured on a 1978 stamp issued by Canada Post to honour the centennial of the CNE."

Visit the link provided to learn about collecting Canadian stamps.

4.6. Letter Carriers Uniforms, Canda Post, Ottawa, 1890-1965.

The Look of the Carriers Over Time

(top left and right)
-The oldest letter carrier's uniform in teh collection of the Canadian Postal Museum, c. 1890. -Rain cape dating from the 1930s,
(bottom left and right)
-When women became carriers in 1965, a new hat was designed to replace the familiar cap.
-At the beginning of the 1950s, the red trim was added to the uniform's pants and jacket.

4.7. Canada Post Logo/ Signage, Canada, 2000

Graphic Standards/Rules for Use of Logo

"The Logo may not be used on any material that infringes on Canada Post intellectual property or other rights, or that disobeys any municipal, provincial, federal, or international law.
The Logo may never be used in any way that would denigrate Canada Post or its products or services.

The Logo may not be imitated or used in any way as a design feature. The Logo may not be distorted in perspective or appearance, or changed in any manner whatsoever.
In no event may third parties use, replicate, or create a ‘spin off’ of the Canada Post corporate tagline (“From anywhere… to anyone™”). This tagline is reserved for the exclusive use of Canada Post Corporation.
The Logo may only be used on Web pages that make accurate references to Canada Post or its products or services, and must be displayed on the same page as the reference. The Web page should be set up so that it is clear to the viewer that the Web page is the company’s Web page and not that of Canada Post. In particular, on any Web page on which it uses the Logo, the Company must also display, in the primary and more prominent position, its own Web page title, trademarks, and logos.

On a Web site, the Logo must always be an active link to Canada Post’s homepage at http://www.canadapost.ca."

4.8. Wampum Belt -Shell&Skin, Iroquis, New York or Eastern Canada, c. 19th Century

Diplomatic Currency

"No utterance of any diplomatic occasion was valid until authenticated by the exchange of wampum in the form of strings or belts. Wampum served to engender further diplomatic contact; its presentation was a gesture that required a repricocal effort on the part of the recipient. Acceptance of the gift of wampum implied the acceptance of its message. In this way, wampum functioned like a certificate. This wampum belt is an abstract representation of an alliance between two peoples, signified by the straight path running between them."

4.9. Copper Shield, West Coast, British Columbia, c. 19th Century

Barter for Copper Shield

"Before the arrival of the Europeans in the early 16th century, Canada was inhabited by its First Nations. They did not use currency but traded in goods and services on a barter basis. Certain objects, however, were regarded as having special economic and social value. This copper shield is one example. It was used by the Haidas of the west coast as a measure of wealth and in gift-giving. For example, chiefs who wanted to demonstrate their wealth and respect for their friends might offer such a shield as a gift to the chief of a neighbouring tribe. That chief would eventually offer a gift of similar value in return."

4.10. Beaver, Trade Silver, Canada, late 18th, early 19th Century

Trade Silver

"The North American First Nations for many years made ornaments of bone, shell and stone. The coming of the Europeans introduced them to ornaments made of brass, copper and silver. The early French fur traders soon learned that the Aboriginals were more than willing to exchange their furs for metal ornaments, especially silver. A lucrative trade developed in what came to be known as "trade silver.'' The English fur traders, and later the American fur traders, were not long in imitating their French competitors and trade silver played an important part in the fur trade in the last half of the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries. The silver ornaments took the form of finger rings, earrings, head bands, bracelets, armlets, brooches and pendants. Some of the ornaments were manufactured in France and England but most were produced by the early silversmiths of Quebec, Nova Scotia, New York and Pennsylvania... Beaver pendants, approximately 1/2 inch in length were valued at one beaver skin and a large silver beaver such as the one illustrated, was valued at ten beaver skins. "

4.11. Rolling Mill and Shears, Royal Mint, Ottawa, 1915

Early Production of Canadian Coins

Visit the link provided to see additional Canadian Mint postcards depicting rolling mills, cutting and pressing machines the coining presses, etc.

4.12. Maple Leaf Design, One Cent Piece, Kruger Gray, Ottawa, 1937

Originally designed for Five Cent Piece

"This maple twig was designed by Kruger Gray. It had been submitted for the five cent piece orginally, but was chosen for the One Cent instead...Immediately after the death of King George V, J.H. Campbell, then Master of the Royal Canadian Mint, submitted to the government certain proposals in regard to obtaining new designs for the reverses of all Canadian subsidiary coins except the dollar, drawing attention to much adverse criticism of the (then) present series and pointing out that the issue of coins with effigy of the new sovereign was a fitting opportunity for making a change. "

4.13. Caribou Twenty-Five Cent Coin Design, Emanuel Hahn, Ottawa, 1937

Caribou and Dig Dipper

"The caribou head was designed by Emanuel Hahn. It had been submitted for the Five Cent piece originally, but was chosen for the Twenty-Five Cent coin. The original drawings included the Big Dipper constellation in the foreground of the caribou, three of the stars made it to the coin.

4.14. Coloured Design Image, Canadian Dollar, 1948-1988

Designer's Sketch

This image is from a colourized photo of 1948 Dollar.
This design was introduced in 1935 and appeared on the $1.00 coin until 1988.

Page Links:
Coin Design 1967

4.15. Canadian Goose Model. Alex Colville, New Brunswick, 1967

Colville Wins 1967 Competition

"In 1964 the Minister of Finance, Walter L. Gordon, announced that a competition open to artists, sculptors and designers residing in Canada or to Canadians living abroad would be held for the submission of coinage designs. A $2,500.00 First Prize was offered for the winning designs in each of the six coinage denominations (One Cent, Five Cents, Ten Cents, Twenty-Five Cents, Fifty Cents and Silver Dollar). These coins will be issued in 1967 to commemorate the One Hundredth Anniversary of Confederation. The competition will be closed on March 31, 1965.

A Panel of Judges was appointed to choose the six winning designs. This panel, under the chairmanship of Mr. N. A. Parker, Master of the Royal Canadian Mint, is composed of the following members: Mr. R. B. Bryce, Deputy Minister of Finance; Dr. Charles Comfort, Director, National Gallery of Canada; Dr. W. K. Lamb, Dominion Archivist; Miss Eleanor Milne, Sculptor, Ottawa; Mr. Marius Plamondon, Sculptor, Quebec City; Mr. L. Rasminsky Governor of the Bank of Canada; Mr. Douglas Ferguson, numismatist, Rock Island, Quebec; Mr. Alan Fleming, Toronto; Mr. Clair Stewart, Toronto; and Mr. Julien Herbert, Montreal all prominent designers and graphic artists."

The decision of the panel was announced in the mint report of 1966. They selected the designs of Mr. Alex Colville of Sackville, New Brunswick for all of the reverses of the 1967 Centennial coinage.

One Dollar:- "The Canada goose seems appropriate for the dollar since it is one of our most majestic creatures and is particularly Canadian. There are other associations with traveling over great spaces, and a kind of serene dynamic quality in this bird." -Alex Colville

4.16. Plaster Model, B.C. Dollar, Stephne Trenka, British Colombia, 1958

One Hundredth Anniversity of the Gold Rush

"Now Know Ye that by and with the advice of Our Privy Council for Canada We do hereby proclaim, direct and determine that the design of the proposed new silver dollar shall be as hereinafter set out; The design of the reverse impression shall be a representation of a totem pole, with the word CANADA at the upper left, the figures "1858-1958" at the left, the words "British Columbia" on the right, mountains in the background, and at the bottom the word "DOLLAR".

AND WHEREAS it is desirable and Our Governor in Council has advised that a proclamation do issue prescribing the design of a one dollar piece to be struck to commemorate the one hundredth -anniversary of the gold rush and the creation of British Columbia as a Crown colony in 1858.

The master punch for the British Columbia commemorative dollar issued in 1958 was produced from the plaster model submitted by Mr. Stephen Trenka, the winner of the competition held in connection with this issue. "

4.17. Olympic Loonie, Robert Ralph Carmichael, Susanna Blunt, Canada, 2004

Lucky Looni

"VANCOUVER, BC August 4, 2004 -Today, the Royal Canadian Mint officially unveiled Canada's newest circulation coin, the 'Lucky Loonie.' The 2004 Lucky Loonie celebrates Canada's Olympic athletes and underscores their commitment to excellence. The one-dollar coin will serve as a good luck charm for the 2004 Canadian Olympic Team.

Designed by renowned Canadian coin designer Robert-Ralph Carmichael, the 'Lucky Loonie' engraving features a common loon at rest on a lake with an islet in the background and above the loon - the Canadian Olympic Committee symbol. The obverse features the portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II by Susanna Blunt."

Visit the link provided to learn about the history of Canda's Loonie.

4.18. Canadian Card Money- French Regime. c. 18th Century

Card Money- French Regime

"In the course of three decades researching Canadian history, I came across a document describing a land transaction of one of my husband’s ancestor Pierre-Charles Leduc. The quill-written notary document in antiquated French was dated 1719, and stipulated that the farmland was to be paid for in "card money". Once our Canadian family tree was firmly rooted in my mind, I turned my attention to investigating this early Canadian currency among several others."

Visit the link provided to learn about Adrienne Leduc research on Canadian card money.

4.19. Canadian Card Money, French Regime, Canada, c. 1779.

Notes on Back of Playing Cards

"Printed on playing card stock, the size and shape differed with the denomination. The piece above is signed by Governor Beauharnois, Intendant Hocquart, and Varin, the agent for the Comptroller of the Marine."

Visit the link provided to explore the designs of Canadian paper money:

4.20. Canadian Note, Canada, 1868-1869

Canada' s First Notes

"Between 1868 and 1869 the Dominion government withdrew from circulation and exported several million U.S. silver coins, which were actually worth only 80 per cent of their face value. This ensured that Canadian coins were the only coinage in use in Canada. Waiting for the 1870 series of coins to arrive from England, the central government resorted to issuing 25-cent notes. The public dubbed these small notes "shinplasters" after similar U.S. notes that were reputedly used, during the American revolution, to line soldiers' boots. The initial issue was followed by two others, the last occurring in 1923. "

4.21. Canadian 20 Dollar Bill, Bill Reid, Canada, 2004

Inspired by Haida Culture

"The artwork of Bill Reid (1920-1998), inspired by the Haida culture of Canada's northwest coast, was chosen to represent this theme. Internationally recognized as one of Canada's most accomplished artists, Bill Reid embraced many art forms during his career. His magnificent works range from the intricate to the monumental—woodcarvings, exquisite jewellery, beautiful prints, and massive sculptures. Depicted on the new $20 note are The Spirit of Haida Gwaii, The Raven and the First Men, The Grizzly Bear, and Mythic Messengers. Bill Reid was a mentor, and his work continues to inspire."

Visit the link provided to learn more about the design of the Canadian twenty dollar bill.

4.22. 100 Dollar Bill, Exploration/Innovation Series, Sir Robert Borden (on front) Canada, 2004

Bank Note Design for Security


Counterfeiting Prevention
Bank Note Security Features
Canadian Journey Series $100 Note

There are numerous security features that help identify a genuine Canadian bank note. Here are some key features of the $100 note:

All security features for this note:

-Holographic Stripe
-See-Through Number
-Windowed Security Thread
-Raised Print (Intaglio)

"Over the next five years all of Canada's paper money will be replaced with new bills. Each new note will keep the same person on the front, with new "themes" for the reverse of each bill:-
$5 Children at Play - children playing hockey outdoors (Sir Wilfrid Laurier on the front)
$10 Remembrance and Peacekeeping - veterans, children and peacekeepers paying tribute (Sir John A. Macdonald on the front)
$20 Arts and Culture - the artwork of renowned Canadian artist Bill Reid (Queen Elizabeth II on the front)
$50 Nation Building - the accomplishments of the Famous Five and Thérèse Casgrain (William Lyon Mackenzie King on the front)
$100 Exploration and Innovation - historic and satellite maps of Canada (Sir Robert Borden on the front) "

5. Labels, & Advertising Ephemera

5.1. Tin Can, Peter Durand, Britain, 1810

Food Canning-The Tin Can

"August of 1810, Peter Durand was granted a patent by King George III on his tin canister, eventually known as the 'tin can". The container was filled through a hole in the top and then sealed with a soldered plug. A can of Crosse & Blackwell's (England) roasted veal was taken on Perry's voyage to the North West Passage, but was never opened. For many years this can was displayed in the Royal United Service instutution Museum. It was eventually opened in 1936 more than one hundred years after being packed. The contents were found to be still edible."

5.2. Diamond Jubilee Red Currants, Mickie Tomatoes, Ontario, circa 1897

Labels Celebrating an Event

"the choice of brand name was an all-important factor in winning public acceptance. Topical events (Queens Jubilee label pictured here) do not influence the designer to any great exten today. In the early packaging days, for the most part, they had yet to learn that choosing a brand name relating to one year's social phenomena might mean re-design for the next."

Diamond Jubilee Red Currents, Lowrey Bros. St. Davids, Ontario, Canada
Warrented-Pire and Free from adulteration of any kind and to keep in any climate. Premove contents of can as soon as opened. All good bearing our signiture guaranteed. Lowrey Bros.
Michies Tomatoes, Michie and Co. Ltd. Toronto, Ontario.

5.3. Pork and Beans, Weston, Ontario, no date; Mackerel Herring, Chatham, New Brunswick, no date; Condensed Milk, Winnipeg, Manitoba, no date

Satisfaction Or Your Money Back

"Tinned goods topped the city housewife's shopping list, and the range of products seemed limitless. From the fertile valleys and farming regions of the country the pick of the crop made its way to processing plants and canneries whre any of a dozen different labels like these guarenteed "satisfaction or your money back." Frozen foods were unheard of, and each label bore the message "remove contents of can as soon as opened," a precaution against bolulism. "

5.4. Lobster Labels, William Crichlow Harris, Prince Edward Island, c.late 19th Century

Whimsical Labels, Designed by an Architect

" Prior to the 1860s the only way to get lobster to market was as a live catch. The crustacean defied pickling or drying-the only methods of food preservation.

The first known cannery on Prince Edward Island opened around 1858. By 1871 there were only two canneries on the whole island...ten yars latere thanks to the lobster fishery, the number of canneries had exploded to over 100.
Many of the more whimsical lobster labels were designed by William Crichlow Harris, who was also a well respected architect. In the 20th century, lobster labels grew more serious in tone.

5.5. Canada' Pride Apples, Log Cabin Brand Refugee Beans, Ontario, c. 1915

Convincing the Consumer

"Once people had been persuaded to use canned foods and competition increased, more specific advertising found its way into Canadian labels. "Finest Quality" or "Selected Stock" were among key promoting phrases. Wehn brand names and trademarks were introduced, various sociological symbols were used as a means of product indentification. The Delhi Fruit and Vegetable Canning Co. warreneted "our Trademark"-Your Shield" and Bellville Canning Company b boasted "The Largest Canning Factory in Canada". Medals and awards won by the product or company were illustrated and endorsements of teh product began to appear. At a time when media advertising was virtually non-existent would, insofar as food was concerned, the can label was the means of convincing the consumer to buy on brand over the other.

5.6. Salmon Labels, British Columibia, c. 1950=60

Early Labels Picturesque

"The labels off old salmon cans are telling us a great deal about West Coast cultural and technological development.

(top) Cock o'the North Brand Salmon, Anderson and Miskin Ltd. Vancouver, British Columbia
Falcon Brand Salmon,
British Columbia
(bottom) Paddler Brand Salmon, Allied Export Co. Ltd. Vancouver, British Columbia

Visit the link provided to learn about the Gulf of Georgia Cannery Historic site.

When asked why salmon can labels today are not as picturesque as in the past, Lorenz explains that advertising has evolved. "Now we have televison, radio, newspapers, and colour flyers. All labels have to do is remind comsumers of previous advertising, "McKay adds, "Simple was equated with modern in the 1970s, which was when labels shifted away from pictures."

Fist there were rugged mountains and silvery fish. Then came the beaver, the Mountie, and the native chief on horseback. During the war, fish came back- this time shaped like torpedos-and warships replaced the mountainous backdrop. Peacetime brought rosy-cheeked housewives and smiling men proudly displaying their catch.

Images found on salmon can labels form the Gulf of Georgia Cannery are the topic of a collaborative research project involving University of Victoria, the cannery, and the Richmond Art Gallery. Under the direction of UVic history in art professor Carol Gibson-Woo, history graduate student Kathy McKay and history in art graduate Claudia Lorenz researched the icons depicted on historic salmon can labels.

Located at the mouth of the Fraser River in the historic fishing village of Steveston, Braitish Columbia, the Gulf of Georgia Cannery is a 108 year old site. The cannery is one of the last standing remnant of an industry that has dotted B.C. shorelines during Canada's infancy. Closed in 1972, the cannery now sees people instead of fish; 20,00 people visited the cannery in 2001 alone."

5.7. Seafood Labels, New Brunswick, British Columbia, c. 1950-1960

Fish Canning History

"The advent of canning provided a lucrative market for the fishing industry in Canada. By 1850 herring adn shellfish were being processed on the east coast and salmon canning went into operation on the west coast, when Alexander Ewan opened the first cannery in New Westminster, British Columbia. The industry quickly expanded and many canneries opened their doors, becoming the impetus for population of many coastal communities. The tremendous number of fishing operations resuleted in the necessity for conservatoin of salmon and the first salmon hatchery was constructed in 1883. The fishing boon also led to the uniionization of fishermen ans subsequent managerial organizations of fishermen and subsequent managerial organizations.
Forty-two canneries amalgamated to form the British Columbia Packers Association in 1902. Improved technology, in both fishing fishing and canning, provided employment for a large percentage of the coastal population as it continues to do today."

Blue Shoals Brand Clams, Chamcook Seafoods, Ltd., Chamcook, New Brunswick
Cap'n John Brand Clam Bouillon, Chamcook, New Brunswick
Paramount Pink Salmon, Nelson Bros. Fisheries Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia

5.8. OK Apple Labels, British Columiba, 1910s -1950s.

Apple Crate Labels, British Columbia

"The first selling agency in B.C. was calle the Fruit and Produce Exchange and was formed in 1907. It lasted only one year. The Kootenay Fruit (Strawberry label) bears this selling agency, thereby dating this label to be the 1907-08 period. Okanagan United Growers or OUG lasted from 1913 until 1923. About 1000 growers signed up with this agency. Associated Growers of British Columbia began May 10, 1923 and was in business until late 1930s. Incorporated in July of 1936, the B.C. Tree Fruits Limited did not reach its goal as sole selling agency in B.C. until 1939. Their first logo on the labels, "Sales Agents. BC Tree Fruits" , was used from about 1939 until 1954. At that time it switched logos from Sales Agents to Mountain Grown. This logo was in use until the death of the fruit label, about 1969.

Salves Service Limited was an agency for independant orchards that operated from approximately 1927 to 1939. The Empire Star logo was used on labels form about five years, in the 1930's ( approximately 1933 t0 1938).

Labels that where black and white, blue and white along with labels with little or no colour are quite early. These date from the late teens through the 1920s. Labels bearing the wording "Cooperative Farmers" are also usually from the late teens or early 1920s>
From 1954 on, labels are dated by the last two numbers of the year printed on the bottom of the label."

The OK labels pictured here date between 1910 and 1950.

5.9. Blue Bird Canadian Products, Sales Service Limited, Kelowna, British Columbia, c. 1930s

Fruit Crate Label Lithograph Companies, British Columbia

"The two companies that did the majority fo B.C. Fruitt Crate Labels were: F.C. Smith Litho, Vancouver, B.C. and Bulman Bros. Ltd. Vancouver B.C. These were followed by Grant Litho, also of Vancouver. In 1947, Mann Litho appeared on the scene followed by the amalgamation in 1951 with Grant to form Grant-Mann Litho. Some of the very earliest labels were doen by B.C. Print and Litho Ltd., Vancouver; for example Penticton Fruit Growers Uniion- OK Apples, a large size label circa 1918 and CG Brand.

Other very earliest labels were done by out of province litho companies. The Crest Brand-Crestland Fruit, Creston , B.C. is an example of one done by the Western Printing and Lithography Co. Ltd., Calgary. The Stovel Co. Ltd., Winnipeg put out the yellow OK label (Canada's Best) and Non-Irrigated Apples (blue background with two apples on the front)."

5.10. Orchard Brand Canadian Apples, Vernon, British Columbia, c.1930s

Okanagan Valley Landscape

"A common feature of Canadian fruit crate labels are the use of landscapes. Typically, outdoor scenes are the first thing that comes to mind when Canada is mentioned. Canadian growers were quick to exploit these perceptions and utilize landscapes as a themes on their labels. Interestingly, not all representations were accurate. Early labels depicted idealized versions of towering mountains and idyllic lush valleys. This idealized imagery slowly gave way to more accurate depictions of the Okanagan landscape over time. “Orchard Brand” and “Penoka” are realistic representations of the Okanagan Valley. Most landscape themed labels incorporate all of the features that a consumer would associate with Canada including mountain ranges, lush valleys and picturesque lakes."

5.11. Buy British Brand Canadian Apples, Vernon, British Columbia, c. 1930-1938

Very British Brititsh Columbia

"British Columbia labels were developed in an economic, cultural, and physical environment which was unique to Western North America. Thus, the label designs used in B.C. were often unique in the themes and viewpoints expressed. An outstanding example of this is found in a group of labels which convey very strong British oriented images. In 1911, 81% of the population of the Okanagan valley was of British origin, and as late as 1935, over 90% of the Okanagan's export apple crop went to Great Britain. These cultural and economic ties to the old country are clearly evident in labels such as 'Lion Brand', 'Buy British Brand', and 'John Bull Brand'."

5.12. Big Chief Brand, Palmer Produce, Empire Grown, Salmon Arm, British Columbia, c. 1950s

B.C. Fruitcrate Labels & Indigenious Images

"Most B.C. labels feature themes indigenous to the surrounding area. Caribou, bears, deer, indians, birds, orcharding, and the like were commonly used images to identify B.C. packs. This idea is seen in the accompanying illustrations."

Visit the link provided to learn more about the fruit crate labels and packaging from the B.C. Orchard Industry Fruit Museum

5.13. Buffalo Canadian Apples, R. H. McDonald and Sons Ltd. Vernon, British Columbia, c. 1950

Wild West Images

"Much of the early years of Canadian colonization was under the firm control of one of the world’s oldest companies, The Hudson’s Bay Company. So called "Indian wars" and general lawlessness were not good for business and the Company, and later the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, made sure that nothing stood in the way of commerce and profits. This did not stop Canadian growers from using “Americanized” wild west imagery to sell fruit, however. "Buffalo Brand" is an interesting label because there never were any buffalo in the Okanagan. Other labels seem to promote the image of the Okanagan as a sportsman’s paradise, images of game birds and bears, carefully juxtaposed with orchards in the background as seen with the labels “Blue Grouse” and “Black Bear."

5.14. Nova Scotia Apples, Scotian Gold Brand, Kentville, Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia For English Exports

The commercial apple industry of Nova Scotia was mostly in the Annapolis-Cornwallis Valley, which is roughly 2 to 10 miles wide and 80 miles long, and production has been mostly centered around Kentville. The industry peaked in 1911 (with some 2,500,000 apple trees). Commercial apple production was developed to serve small markets in England, particularly London. Labels for most early containers are round, because the early containers were barrels. Later, some packers went to wooden crates, and ultimately to cardboard. Labels are very scarce from the region, but, some can still be located.

5.15. Canadian History Series (Series 48) Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada Ltd. c. 1910

Tobacco Cards and Anti-Smoking Campaign.

These collector cards advertised the Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada, Limited and provided gilmpses of Canadian History for students ( potential smokers) and their families. Although the male member of the family was generally the purchaser of the product, the children and women would keep the collections for entertainment and education.

Things are certainly changed today. The Anti- Smoking design project organized by the government of Manitoba is asking young people for design proposals.

"The Manitoba government is asking almost 120,000 students to decide whether they want their next anti-smoking campaign to be delivered with wry humour, graphic realism or a heartwrenching personal touch.

The "review and rate" program, launched Monday at a north end Winnipeg high school, will see students in Grades 6 through 12 across Manitoba vote to determine which of a dozen TV commercials they think is most effective in preventing classmates from lighting up and in getting existing smokers to butt out.

Healthy Living Minister Jim Rondeau said he and Education Minister Peter Bjornson want to use peer pressure to their advantage."

Pictured here are a selection of the 48 cards issued in this series:

(top left and right)
First Canadian Steamboat "S.S. Accommodation" built by Molson
Carot Sails from Bristol 1497

(second row)
The Great Quebec Bridge
Champlain and French Pioneers enterain Memberton and other Indians of Port Royal, 1607

(3rd row)

Champlain Soujourn with the Indians 1615-1616
Champlain discovers Lake Champlain, about 1606

(4th row)

Princess Patricia inspects her Regiment
Building the fitrs Church, 1615

(bottom row)
Indians assist Brebuel in building his mission house, 1634
Indians warning of Kirke's Approach, 1628

5.16. Tobacco Cards Overseas Dominions (Canada) , W.D. & H. O. Wills, Bristol and London, c. 1914-1915

Illustrations of Canadian Landscape & Industry

This series of 50 tobacco cards depict canadian scenery, industry, cities, transporation and, in general, provide illustrated views of the Dominion of Canada.

Card number one typifies the Canadian logging industry. The back of card number one states: " Our picture shows a typical lumber-raaft on one of the great Canadian waterways. Some of these rafts are half-a mile in length, and contain as amuch as 50,000 pounds worh of timber. the lumber-men (or lumber-jacks) as they are termed) are mostly French Canadians, though many Swedes and Scots are to be found around them. These men live on the raft in rough shanties built of wood."
Picture here is a seleciton of cards from the complete set of 50.


(top row left to right)
Threshing Wheat
The Great Divide

(2nd row)
Timber Raft

(3rd row)
A Backwoods Village
A New Town in the West

(4th row)
Kootenay Reservation
Peace River

(5th row)

The 'Three Sisters"

5.17. Indian of Canada Series, Lazarre and Parker (Illustrators), Red Rose Tea, Montreal, 1972

1st Nations Lifestyle and Technologies, Education and Advertising

Brooke Bond, owners of Red Rose Tea, issued cards in Great Britain, South Africa, and Rhodesia. There are several Canadian series starting from 1954. Canadian cards included Songbirds, Animals and Their Young, Dinasaurs, etc.

Most of the artists were American, even though the content was Canadian.


(top left to right)

-Whale Hunt (West Coast)
-Trade ( Eastern Woodlands)
-Totem Pole (West Coast)

(bottom begin with top)
- (Eastern Woodlands)
Algonkians Capturing Beaver
- (Eastern Woodlands)
-Running Down Buffalo (Plains)

Visit the link provided to learn about the complete Canadian teacard series.

5.18. Hockey Players Tobacco Cards, Imperial Tobacco of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1910-1911

Earliest Hockey Cards

"The earliest hockey cards that I am aware of date back to 1910-11. This series of cards is believed to have been printed by Imperial Tobacco of Canada. The 1910-11 set is also known to collectors as the "C56" set. This classic set was produced in full-color and features 36 cards, each measuring 1.5 by 2.625 inches, noticeably smaller than the standard size of today’s cards. At the bottom of the card you will find the player’s name and team and the back features crossed hockey sticks, a puck, and "Hockey Series" printed beneath the crossed sticks."

This 1910-11 series featured hockey players from the Ottawa, Quebec, Renfrew, Wanderers and Montreal teams. 

(left to right)
Fred Lake, Ottawa
-Has played with Winnipeg Maple Leafs 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911
K. Mallen, Quebec
-Has played with Renfrew 1907, Wanderers, 1908, Quebec 1910, 1911

5.19. Hockey Cards, Printed in Canada, 1933-1934

Black and White Cards, 1930s

These 1930s cards are different in that that would arrive with a perforated cut around the torso of the played. This gave the players a more three-dimensional look.

The cards on the bottom black and white "head shots" similar to movie star portrait photographs of the period.

(top left to right)
-Desilets- Age 21, weight 170 lbs, 5' 9" -born Stratford, Ontario, with Montreal Canadians. Series D- no. 114
-Trotter- Left forward Montreal Maroons. Was a member of the famous Toronto Varsity Senior Team of 1930. Turned professional with Maroons. Stands 5'10" weighs 174 lbs.
Series D- No. 126

5.20. Hockey Cards, Opeeshee, London, Ontario, c. 1970s

Those Seventies Cards

"In 1968, the Topps Chewing Gum Company (Brooklyn, New York) and O-Pee-Chee formed an alliance and were the only major card companies to produce hockey cards up to 1994-1995 season when O-Pee-Chee discontinued producing cards. "

5.21. Hockey Cards, Pee Chee &Topps , 1990s, 2003

"The present day producers of hockey cards are Upper Deck, Pacific, Topps and OPC who each produce up to as many as 7 hockey card sets per season."

(top left to right)
-Vincent Damphousse- Maple Leafs- Left Wing
-Patrick Roy- Canadiens-Goalie

(bottom left to right)
-Brendan Morrison Vancouver Canucks
-Mrkus Naslund, Vancouver Canucks.

6. George's Stuff - Packaging

6.1. George's Kitchen, Whitewood, Saskatchewan, 2003

George Chopping Museum

"George Chopping, A Buffalo Bill look alike, owns and lives in a fascinating museum... that makes a great place for young and old to visit."
- Canadian Geographic

"One of the most fascinating museums housing over 30,000 artefacts and a five room antique shop."
- Saskota's Travel Route

"Old George's Authentic Collectibles is the result of one man's life-time passion for gathering things." (One of 12 blue star sights in Saskatchewan)
- National Geographic's Driving Guide to America: Canada

"They live an out of the ordinary life in an extraordinary collection of prairie artefacts and pioneer folklore."
- Farm Woman (Full Page) "

6.2. George Chopping


Wait for the video to load and then click the Play button to start the video.

George Chopping, Collector, Whitewood, SK

George talks about his collecting, and his museum/home in Whitewood Saskatchewan. You will have a glimpse of but a few few of his antique Canadian package designs. A visit to the museum is a must for any of you that travel on the Trans-Canada Highway. Stop,. visit and say "hello" to George for me!
-Sam Carter

6.3. Matches, Eddy Co, Western Match Co, Toronto, c. 1950s

Buffalos, Cowboys, and Owls

(top left)
Eddy’s Buffalo Matches Treated to Prevent After glow. Non Poinsonous strike anywhere.
(top left)
Western Matches Excise tax 3 cents Made in Western Canada. Western Match Co. Victoria BC Map of Canada from Ontario west. Canada’s Great West.
(bottom left)
Eddys Silent Match Treaded to prevent after glow. Non poisonous strike anywhere.
(bottom right)
Eddy’s Owl Match treated to prevent after glow. Non Poisonous strike anywhere.Excise tax 2 1/4 cent Eddy Match Co. Canada.

6.4. Pickaninny Molasses, Nova Scotia, c, 1910

Black Child Depicted on Label

"This is An All British Product packed only for the Dominion."

Several molasses products produced in Canada featured black children on their labels.
Webster defines picaninny as (offensive) a Black child.

6.5. Nabob Coffee Tin, Vancouver, British Columibia, c. 1950s

Nabob Coffee Established 1896

Nabob Brand Coffee Kelly Douglas and Co. Vancouver, B.C.
The Nabob Coffee Company was established in 1896.

6.6. Squirrel Peanut Butter, Canada, c. late 1940s

Peanut Butter in a Cup

This peanut butter container was used as a cup...an early example of package recycling.

Squirrel Brand Peanut Butter Registered Trade Mark The Famous Canada Ltd

6.7. Repeater Fine Cut CanadianTobacco Tin, Imperial Tobacco Company, Montreal, c. 1910

Royal Mountie on Horse Back

From George Choppings collection.
Visit the link provided to view a range of Canadian tins available from a Winnipeg antique dealer.

6.8. Ganong Bros. Confectionery, St. Stephan, New Brunswick, c. 1950s

Early Canadian Confection Company

"Since 1873 the Ganong family and friends have put their heart and soul into the chocolate confectioner's art. An art never lost. For the special skills in making quality confectionery have been passed down from father to son throughout the generations in the small town of St. Stephen, New Brunswick."

Ganong Bros. Manufacturers of High Class Confesionary St. Stephen NB. McNaughton Moosomin Sask. Distributors.

6.9. George Hudson Bay Christmas Hamper, Winnipeg, c. 1900

Hampers for Families

"Hambers were used to package food items for the families during the Christmas season by the Hudson Bay Company"

6.10. Europa Brand Ham Tin, International Packers, Saskatoon, c. 1950

Ham in a Can

Europe Brand Made in Canada Ham packed by International Packers Ltd. Head office Saskatoon Canada

6.11. International Stock Food Tonic, International Stock Food Co., Toronto, c. 1900

For Cows, For Hogs, For Sheep

International Stock Caption:

Food Tonic, 3 Feeds for One cent Internationsal Stock Food Co. Toronto, Canda and Minneapolis Minn. For Cows For Hogs For Sheep.

6.12. Blue Ribbon Coffee, Blue Ribbon Ltd. Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, c. 1940.

Vancouver, Winnipeg & Toronto

Value Coffee, A good Coffee Moderately Prices Smooth Mellow Satisifying Blue Ribbon Limited Vancouver Winnipeg Toronto.

6.13. Stanfield's Unsinkable Underware,

From Wool to Cotton

"Charles E. Stanfield had no idea when he immigrated to America in 1855 that he would found the firm that is a leader in its field today. Charles, along with his brother-in-law Samuel E. Dawson, founded the Tryon Woolen Mills in Tryon, P.E.I. in 1856. Charles sold his interests to Samuel in 1866. Charles, after spending a year or so in Charlottetown, then left for Truro, Nova Scotia.

In 1870 Charles founded the Truro Woolen Mills (opposite the present railway station), which was believed to be the first factory of its kind in Canada. In succession, Charles built the St. Croix Woolen Mills at St. Croix, Nova Scotia...The Union Woolen Mills at Farnham...Truro Felt Works, near the Pictou crossing on Prince Street...finally locating at the present site on the banks of Salmon River in 1882."

Visit the link provided to veiw present day advertising, still featuring men in their underware!

6.14. National Flour Mills Bag, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, c. 1950s

Wheat & Beaver

"National Flour Mills Limited National Pride Flower,
milled where the world’s best rye grows.
Mills at Moose Jaw Sask. 5 lbs when packed National Pride Rye Flour"

6.15. Red Ribbon Apple and Strawberry Jam, Smith Limited, Regina, Saskatchewan, c Early 1900

With Added Colour

Label text:
"Red Ribbon Brand Apple and Strawberry Jam with added colour. Made with sound fruit prepared with pure granulated surgar. 4 lbs H. G. Smith Limited, Regina Sask. "

7. Transportation Posters & Designs

7.1. Winnipeg Via Thunder Bay Route Poster, 1883

First Known CPR Poste, 1883

"The first known CPR poster was printed in 1883. Since then, thousands of brochures, posters, menus, advertisements and other items have been created to promote travel, immigration and settlement, war efforts, freight traffic and other services provided by the company. In early years, CPR sponsored artists - both well known and emerging talent - by providing railway passes to take them to scenic locations along the line, and CPR had the option to purchase works produced from these trips. In later years, CPR commissioned artists and even employed full-time graphic artists in the company's studio in Montreal. Representative works from the collection of Canadian Pacific Railway Archives are included here."

7.2. Quebec Central Railway, Quebec City, Quevec , c. 1874

With Pen and Pencil

This black and white lithographic image celebrates picturesque scenery and suggest a Pen &Pencil.

The Sherbrooke Eastern Townships & Kennebec Railway officially opened for business in 1874 and the next year, changed its name to the Quebec Central Railway. Its intended role, as mainly a resource railway, proved prophetic. During construction of the line near the Thetford region, asbestos was discovered. The asbestos industry soon exploded and, as a result, the railway thrived and expanded."

Visit the link provided to learn more about the railways and poster design.

7.3. The Worlds Fair Poster, Canadian Pacific Railway, 1893

Thrice Daily Service

" A tastefully designed poster advertising teh thrice daily service available between Toronto and Chicago in 1893 during the Worlds Fair.

7.4. Summer Tours Fro 1893 Poster, Canadian Pacfic Railway, 1893

Extraordinary Record of Poster Design, Canadian Pacific Railway

"The Canadian Pacific Railway Company created an extraordinary record of poster design as they sought to promote travel and attract settlers to Canada.

Canadian Pacific advertised its services through bold design and marketing brilliance. Artists were recruited from among Canada’s most celebrated painters and graphic designers.

The CPR used the persuasive power of posters to portray all aspects of its travel and tourism services. Posters have caused settlers to come to the Canadian West; have enticed travellers to board Canadian Pacific rail, ship, and air services; and have invited the wealthy to take cruises, stay in hotels and resorts, and enjoy tours to Canada and around the world.

The posters of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company popularized global travel and tourism, and have provided beautiful and enduring images of Canada."

7.5. Empress Steamers Poster, Canadian Pacific, c.1920s

New Name for Seagoing Operation

"Canadian Pacific Steamships Limited became the coporate identity of the Canadian Pacific Railway's ocean services in 1921, just prior to it's entry into the cruise business."

7.6. Poster, Canadian National Railway, 1925

Canadian National Railways Elegant

Canadian National Railway was established in 1852. The use of poster art was central to the railways branding and advertising. Pictured here is an elegant poster with limited text. This poster would be used to establish a postive image for the settling and visiting the Canadian Prairies. The flat styalized design is typical of the poster styles of the 20s and 30s.

7.7. Quebec, Canada Tourist Brochure, 1929

4. 5. and 6 Days in Quebec, Canada

This beautifully designed and produced brochure includes a range on black and white photos, each decoratively framed. The brochure outlines tours from four to six days. Included are visits to hertiage archtectural sites, farms, countryside destinations and other key tourist attractions.

7.8. Canadian Pacific Duchess Steamships, Percry Angelo Staynes, c. 1929

London Based Painter

Percy Staynes was born in England in 1875. He studied at the Manchester School of Art , the Royal College of Art and Academie Julien in Paris. Staynes established himself in London as an oil nad water-colour painter, as well as an illustrator and designer. He was a member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours and of trhe Royal Institute of Oil Painters. During World War II, Staynes designed posters of teh British campaign against German U-boats. He died in London on April, 14, 1953.

7.9. Trans-Canada Limited, Canadian Pacfic, Harry Hudson Rodmell, 1921

Watercolourist and Oil Painter

"Harry Henry Rodmell, was born in England in 1896. He studied at the Hull College of Art and became a watercolour and oil painter of land and seascapes."

7.10. Scenic New Brunswick Canada, Brochure, Fredericton, New Brunswick, 1937

Scenic Grandeur

"This booklet, "Scenic New Brunswick," is compiled and published in the hope that it will convey to the visitor some idea of the scenic grandeur with which this Province has been endowed.
It is presented with the compliments of the Government of the Province of New Brunswick. For further particulars, maps and information write D. W. Griffiths, Director , New Brunswick Government Bureau of Information and Tourist Travel. "

7.11. To the Far East, Maurice Logan, Canadian Pacific, 1936

Images of Asia

Between 1918 and the start of World War II, the Canadian Pacific Steamship Company greatly expanded its services on the Pacific. Numerous posters terming the line the largest and fastest to the Orient lured the public East.

Canadians, Americans, and Europeans inspired by CP posters depicting scenes and people from Asia. This "White Empres" is arriving at a Japanese port.

7.12. The Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway Company, 1937

Crown Motif

Advertising brochure incorporates the royal visit into its promotion.
Some say that Americans were slightly envious of the royal statis of many Canadian institutions. The railways and many other Canadian enterprise capitalized on the crown.

7.13. Motor to Friendly Canada Brochure, Canadian Pacific Hotels, c. 1940s

No Fuss at the Border

"Canada Invites you...No seas to cross...no passports for U. S. citizens... If you read further, oh, America, please remember those headlines...for such is the nature of all Canada's welcome to American citizens...No fuss and bother at the Border!"

7.14. Canadian Rockies via Canadian Pacfic, Peter Ewart, Montreal, 1941

Montreal and Vancouver

Peter Ewart's first poster commission "Sports d'Hiver" was in 1939. After WWII, he worked for CPR in Montreal and did numeous posters. in 1947 he moved to Vancouver, established a studio, and divided his time between commercial designing and painting. From 1948 onward Ewart continued to design posters for CPR in Montreal and Canadian Pacific Airlines in Vancouver."

7.15. Canada Steamship Lines Brochure,

Fascinating Vacations on Canada's Glorius Waterways

"This summer have the time of your life...Cruise through Canada....No passports...No trouble."

7.16. The Canadian, Canadian Pacific, Roger Couillard, 1950

Canadian Pacific's Premier Transcontinental Train

"In the mid-1950s, nothing said "Canada" like snowclad mountains, ice-blue lakes and, of course, Canadian Pacific's premier transcontinental train, the Canadian."

"Roger Couillard was born in Montreal, 191 and studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Montreal. In 1935 the Institute of Foreign Travel organized a poster competition on the theme of "See Europe Next." Coulliard's poster was among those chosen and exhibited in Ogilvey's [Department Store, Montreal]. By 1937 he opened a studio in the Drummond Building on Ste. Catherine Street in Montreal.... Couillard entered the Quebec Ministry of Tourism in 1966, whre be became an inspector for hotels, retiring from that position in 1975."

7.17. Colurful Alberta Canada Brochure, 1960

Mounties and Indians Popular in the 1950s

This two colour brochure features a Mountie and Indian.
" There's plenty of thrils and excitement at a western rodeo....The handsome dome of the Alberta Legislative Building is a familiar landmark on the Edmonton skyline...Inland sailors find fair breezes on the provinces lovely lakes...An oil well in your grainfield is no longer a novelty on Alberta's oil-rich plaines...Students gather from all parts of the world to study at the famous Banff School of Fine Arts."

7.18. Beautiful British Columbia, Winter, 1966

Now Online

"For more than 40 years, British Columbia Magazine (formerly Beautiful British Columbia Magazine) has entertained and enlightened its worldwide audience of readers with inspiring profiles of B.C.'s beautiful places, intriguing journeys, and remarkable people. Our quarterly issues combine well-researched articles with the highest-quality colour photography to present British Columbia's incredible natural diversity and scenery, its boundless opportunities for outdoor exploration, adventure, and travel, its abundant wildlife, parks, and wilderness, and its legacy of fascinating history and heritage places. We seek out the exotic, the unknown, and the rare within British Columbia, surprising even residents with the beauty and variety of the province. "

8. War Posters

8.1. Victory Bond Campaign, Regina, Saskatchewan, 1918

Victory Bonds Targeted to Ethnic Groups

"During the First World War, the imagery of Canada's posters was, both thematically and graphically, similar to that of British war posters. This visual affinity was partly due to the imperial and constitutional ties between Canada and Britain. In addition, Canada targeted posters at specific ethnic groups. There were specially designed posters for French Canadians, Irish-Canadians and Canadians of Scottish descent. The bulk of the posters encouraged men to enlist and the public to buy Victory Bonds. "

8.2. World War I War Posters, c. 1914-1916

Poster War

"Recruiting poster, bond drive posters...World War I was a poster war. Tacked on walls of banks, post offices, churches, and other public buildings, these graphic reminders used the best devices of advertising to get theri points across. The war effort depended on two resources: money and men, and even if the message was sometimes too strong or the appeal too dramatic, most Canadians met their obligation to help when calle upon. "If you cannot join him, you should help her" was a common slogan used to raise money for the Patriotic Fund for servicemen's wives, orphans and widows. "

8.3. Buy Victory Bonds Poster, WW1, c. 1914- 1915

Printing Houses Produce in the Hundreds of Thousands

"The recruiting and financing needs of the First World War demanded that governments produce more posters than ever before. Canadian posters for the First World War (as well as for the Second World War) were printed in the major printing centres of Hamilton, Montreal, and Toronto. According to Marc Choko's authoritative book, Canadian War Posters (Meridien 1994), print runs of Canadian war posters ranged anywhere from a few hundred to 50,000 copies. These images created a powerful impact in a variety of public places, from store windows and billboards to the interiors of ferries and factories. "

Visit the link provided for more details on Canadian War Posters.

8.4. Canda's Butter Opportunity Poster, c. 1914

Keep Britain's Butter Plate Full

"As with Australia, Canada entered the First World War along with Britain in August 1914. Again, Canada did not have in place a policy of conscription - although this was (controversially) changed in time by Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden - and recruitment posters were prominent in stimulating military enlistment."

Visit the link provided to learn more about WW1 themes and designs.

8.5. Victory Bonds Poster, G.K. Odell, Ottawa, c. 1941

Canadian Propaganda

"Nowhere was it clearer than in posters that a picture is worth a thousand words. No one needed to be reminded that the struggle was for hearts and minds at home, as well as for territory abroad.

The Wartime Information Board, under the direction of NFB's John Grierson, spelled out for artists the purpose of propaganda: to instil pride and confidence in Canada and her institutions; to show the consequences of defeat; to create a sense of personal responsibility and an acceptance of the need to sacrifice; and, above all, to build up assurance of victory.

Poster appeals were both emotional and intellectual...The message in other media was the same. The CBC brought in Vincent Price, the dean of gothic horror, to narrate a series of spy dramas set in New Brunswick and B. C. towns. British and Hollywood films blenced backlot bunker scenes with documentary footage to show Allied heroes and Axis villains."

8.6. Action Stations Everyone Poster, L.J. Trevor, Director of Public Information, Ottawa, 1941-1942

Appeals For Discretion and Productivity

"In the Second World War, Canadian posters reflected the fact that Canada was not under attack by an aggressor on its own turf. Whereas some countries' war posters portrayed violence in graphic detail, Canada's posters are generally avoided such images.

While war posters again encourage enlistment and financial support of the war effort, advancement in communication made appeals for discretion and secrecy staple messages of many Second World War posters. Another frequent theme was the encouragement of workers to increase productivity."

8.7. White Elephant Posters, WW2, Ottawa, Ontario c. 1940

Printed by Natonal War Services, Hon. J.T. Thorson, Minister

"Shortages in almost all resources and materials curtailed normal factory production, and most advertising reflected the change."

These posters printed in both French and English discouraged Candians from buying what they did not need, hence, more materials left for the war effort.

8.8. Hitler and Beaver Poster, Ottawa, c. 1940

The Establish of Government Poster Design and Production

"When World War II broke out it took some time to get into the act of mounting a poster campaign to apprise the poblic of the urgency of the wartime situation. Finally, the Department of Public Information (later named the Wartime Information Board) was established by the Ministry of War Services., and commercial and "fine" artists were enlisted to create powerful images that would inspire, exhort and inform. But it was not until 1942 when Harry Mayerovitch ( "Mayo") took over the design department for the National Film Board that a consistent programme of poster production got underway. Another wartime posterist, Charles Fainmel , complaned in 1947 that the Canadian government had not maintained the momentum gained during the war years to educate the public and to broadcast vistal message of peace and reconstruction through a nationwide poster campaigne. Henry Everleigh demonstrated what could be achieved in the category of "social" posters when he designed an inpirtational photo-montage which won him the first United National poster contest in 1947.

8.9. Careless Words Poster, French and English, WW2, Ottawa, c. 1940

The Secret War

"Censorship and tight security at military camps and munitions plants would have been powerless against the civilian networks of families, friends and lovers. Amongst them would be spies according to many of the posters and communications issued by the Ministry of National War Services.

Qoute from William Stephenson in A Man Called Intrepid:
"The Big Lie takes many forms. It can win bloodless victories for Germany if our leaders are soft-headed...Germany's final enemies are in North America. Hitler will try first to sap our courage by winning friends there."

This was a secret war with agents, spies, and use of media. For example, "buried in teh Toronto Telegram's want ads section in 1941 was a piece recruiting "secretaries to work for the British Government in New York. Behind the ad was the British Secret Intelligence Services."

8.10. Appeal for Discretion, Anonymous, WWII Poster, Ottawa, c. Early 1940s

Sophisticated Design-Displayed at War Production Factories

"Posters calling for discretion discouraged civilians from discussing military information. These posters were often displayed at war production factories and emphasized the danger of inadvertently leaking information."

This WWII poster, like most, was issued by the Director of Public Information, Under the Authority of the Hon. J. T. Thorson, Minister of National War Services, Canada. These are the poster themes:

Victory Bonds
Canada Food Board
War Effort and Production
Appeals for Discretion
Men of Valor

8.11. War Saving Stamps Poster with Cut-Out Clothing, Ottawa, c. 1940

A Time for Volunteers

"Ration coupons, victory bonds went hand-in-hand with hard times. Poster like the one pictured here encourged students to get behind the Canadian war effort by fund-raising for supplies.

Not only were materials and good at a premium, hotel rooms and and upper birth (econmy) on sleeping cars were hard to find. With rents frozen, landlords asked for "key money" or insisted on selling a few sticks of useless furniture before they would rent an apartment. Use car dealers circumvented the law to sell prized vehicles. In 1944 the government forbade Canadians to move to certain over-crowded cities, including Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster, Hamilton, Toronto, Ottawa and Hull without permission.

Wartime was a time for volunteers. The Junior League packed parcels for prisoners of war, Housewives knitted socks for soldiers and saved bacon fat and bones to provide glycerine for explosives and surrended aluminum pots and pans to manufacture more planes.There was a Milk for Britain fund in Vancouver and Books for Boys drive in Toronto. "

8.12. War Saving Stamps Poster, Ottawa, c. 1940

Cut Out Clothing for Fundraising

War saving stamps were purchased to help with the war effort by providing cash that may be used for industrial production of goods needed by soldiers. The cut-out clothing is listed under the caption; "What your money can buy, 1, 50cents- suspenders, 3. $1.75, 8 backpack, $5.75, and so on."

This was the message sent to schools across Canada by National War Services: ( each poster was sent with a separate sheet of cut-out clothing)

"This poster represents one fifth of the year's quota for your class. The objective is to clothe and equip the Airman on the poster. As your pupils save enought to buy one of the items, cut it out neatly and paste it carefully in position on the Poster."
Students would organize fund raising events and work projects to raise funds to be converted to war saving stamps for supplies to soldiers.

8.13. This is Our Strength, Argriculture, National Film Board of Canada, Wartime Information Board, Ottawa, 1940-1944

Not Directed to Enemy

Caption: "Canadian agriculture has risen to the challenge of war. With new methods, greater mechanization, wider rural electrification and erosion control where needed-it can rise to the challenge of peace."

"The relative gentleness of Canada's wartime posters can be attributed in part to the fact that they were not directed at the enemy, but were intended either for home consumption or to encourage the troops overseas. Posters of occupied countries and countries in direct lines of fire were naturally more melodramatic and more persuasive. Ours were usually tame and humane attempts to cheer ourselves up and spur ourselves on. Our poster atrists resisted depicting actual conditions and attitudes in Canada., and rarely managed, or where permitted, to depict the guresome atrocities and scenes of violence which confronted men in uniform."

8.14. Electric Hydro, This Is Our Strength Poster, Marian Scott, National Film Board, Wartime Information Board, Ottawa, 1940-1944

Young and Rubican Survery

" In 1942, employees at Young and Rubicon, Inc. conducted a survey of Canadian war posters in Toronto. This was done at the request of the graphic division of the United States Office of Facts and Figures, a body established by the National Advisory Council on Government Posters. Thirty-three posters which had been used in five differnent campaigns were studied, and interviews employing the "recognition method" were conducted with men and women of various income groups. A set of four basic findings was promulgated:

1. War posters that make a purely emotional appeal are by far the best.
2. War posters tghat are symbolic do not attract a great deal of attention, and fairl to arouse enthusiasm.
3. War posters that make straightforward, factual appeals are much less likely to be effective than those that make emotional appeals.
4.Humourous was posters do not attract as much attention, nor do they make as popular an appeal as those carrying an emotional or even factural message.

The poster judged most sucessful was G. K Odell's "Keep Hands Off" illustrated on page 5 of this lecture.

8.15. Blitzkrieg Poster for Canadian Documentary, c. 1962

An Impressive Cast

This Spanish version poster was used to advertize the 1962 Canadian produced documentary, "Bliztzkrieg."

Canadian Bud Knapp was narrator. A cast included Churchill, Lord Athlone, Maurice Duplessis, Adolf Hitler, C.D. Howe, King George VI, Mackenzie King, etc.

8.16. Remember Noublions pas Poster, 1999

Annual Poster

"Each year, Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) produces a poster to commemorate the men and women who, in serving their country, have put their lives on the line so that others may live in peace.

8.17. Remember N'oubleions pas Poster, Ottawa, 2001

Veterans Week Poster Commissions

"Over the years, the Veterans' Week posters have been both artistic and photographic in nature. Themes have ranged from marking specific battles or events to portray the very personal side of war and peace. This year's poster chronicles Canadians, both Veterans and Peacekeepers, in the roles they play for Canada's wartime and peacekeeping efforts. Photos from WWI, WWII, the Korean War, and Canada's most recent peacekeeping mission have been blended together to create a photo collage that represents Canada's various roles in war and peacekeeping, both past and present."

To see addtional Veterans Affairs posters commisions visit the link provided. Search for "poster."

9. Film Posters

9.1. Nickelodean with Posters, Edmonton, c.1906

Film Poster Advertising

"Buildings converted inot movie theatres were called nickelodeons. This early nickelodeon (nickel from the cost of admission and "odeon for the Greek for theatre) in Edmonton seemed more interested in advertising the movies than impressing customers with a fancy entrance."

Colourful lithographic and painted posters would be combined. Here hand painted, ligthographic and smaller photographic posters are displayed.

9.2. Quebec, Filmed on Location in Canada, 1950s

Patrick Knowles, Canadian Actor

From the Paramount Showmanship manual regarding the Canadian actor Patrick Knowles:

"Pat, who has been involved in adventure both on and off the screen, last had dealings with Canadian officers-all men-during World War II, when she served as a pilot in the Royal Canadian Air Force. Because of this hitch with the R.C.A.F. he found his assignment in "Quebec" particularly rewarding. The picture was shot on location in Canada, and between takes he renewed acquaintances with service friends. "

The tradition of Hollywood based production on location in Canada with selected Canadian talent was becoming a formula for success. The films would show in both Canada and the United States and would encourage investments from Canadians.

9.3. Paramount Showmanship Manual, U. S, A., 1951

National Screen Service in Quebec

The Montreal branch for the distibution of National Screen Service posters, and other film advertising was organized differently that the other three Canadian branches due to the concentration of French theaters.

It was the job of the Montreal Branch to supply all the credits and distribution material in French. Quite often you will find a variety of types from credits being painted on, stickered on, sniped over etc. It depended on how much was needed to make the material ready for distribution.

The manual states: “Paramount's 'Quebec,' a story of a daring rebellion against British rule in Canada more than 100 years ago, will be the next attraction at the....Theatre. Filmed in Technicolor at the actual site of the uprising."

9.4. Canadian Mounties Vs. Atomic Invaders Poster 1953

Canuxploitation, Pierre Berton and the Mounties (Again!)

"Pierre Berton's book, Hollywood's Canada: The Americanization of Our National Image (1975) contains an extensive discussion on how the Mountie films ultimately failed both Canada and America by perpetuating false stereotypes about our country. Although Americans were guilty of presenting a skewered image of Canada to Canadians and the rest of the world, the blame does not lie only with Hollywood. Just as Canadians made North Woods Melodramas, they also made Mountie films. Corporal Cameron of the North West Mounted Police (1912) was one of the earliest and most popular Mountie films, and was made by Canadian film entrepreneur Ernest Shipman. Mounties and other elements of North Woods Drama also appear in Shipman's most celebrated film, Back to God's Country."

From the Canuxploitation website:
"What is Canuxploitation? It is any part of Canadian film history that has been forgotten, or more likely, ignored. It is straight-to-video Canadian genre films collecting dust in previously viewed bins. It is the subject of many articles against arts funding. It is a guy in Calgary filming a cardboard UFO. It is Al Waxman.

What is Canuxploitation not? It is not whimsical films by "hip" Canadian directors. It is not Atom Egoyan, Sarah Polley or the Genies.
Who watches Canuxploitation? This site is for you if you are Canadian and interested in exploring some real Canadian film offerings, or if you aren't Canadian, and are wondering if all of our films are like The Sweet Hereafter. They aren't. "

Visit the link provided to learn about Canadian films.

9.5. Saskatchewan With Quebec Censorship Mark of Approval, Filmed in Canada, 1953

Banff First Hollywood North

"But for sheer, unadulterated glamour, nothing equalled the summer of 1953. It was a summer when the Bow Valley was awash in movie stars. In mid-August, Marilyn Monroe, Robert Mitchum and Rory Calhoun arrived in Banff from Jasper to complete River of No Return. Alan Ladd and Shelly Winters were already in town, living at the Banff Springs Hotel, working on yet another travesty of Canadian history incongruously entitled Saskatchewan.

Marilyn Monroe's star dwarfed all others that summer, particularly with Banff's male population. And their adoration was only enhanced by their sympathy for the brave actress who had sprained her ankle on-location in Jasper and was now forced to hobble onto a raft each day at Bow Falls, Two Jack Lake, and Seebe's Horseshoe Canyon to complete the film's final scenes. (Shelly Winters later accused Marilyn of feigning the injury to soften director Otto Preminger's criticism of her acting.)

The activity of 1953 prompted many residents to believe Banff had become Hollywood North. During the course of the summer, one local outfitter supplied 280 horses and 200 Stoney Indians to the motion picture companies working in the Bow Valley, and on two other productions in Jasper."

9.6. The Canadians,20th Century Fox, 1961

Canadian Poster Distribution Network

Many of the posters used to advertise Canadian films were actually produced, then slighly modified for distribution in Canada.

Illustration: Filmed on the Saskatchewan battlegrounds where it happened.... Staring Robert Ryan
"Because of the complexities of the structure of the studios, to understand Canadian movie paper, we have to step back and look at distribution.

Canadian movie paper (posters and other forms) came from 4 distribution points, Calgary, Toronto, Montreal and St. John New Brunswick. These 4 distribution centers were set up as independent distributors.


The Calgary branch was set up as an independent distributor. In 1950 Sol Candel took over the facility, known then as the Theater Poster Exchange. The Calgary branch basically would receive their material from National Screen in the US, make slight modifications and distribute them.

Each providence had its own censor board so the distributor had to modify the posters to fit each requirement. This was done through a variety of ways, such as: snipes, stickers and the infamous..... black magic marker! This was done quite often over MPAA ratings etc.

In the early 60's the name was changed to Consolidated Theater Services.

In 1964, the Candel family expanded and took over the Toronto branch as well.

Everything basically stayed the same until 1990 when ties to National Screen Service were severed."

The poster notes:
"Introduction Teresa Stratas (Canadian opera star) and staring Robert Ryan(American). Many Hollywood productions with Canadian content would be filmed in Canada with local production and acting talent and, often, with Canadian investment.

"20th Century Fox, Theirs Was The Courage That Stood Against The Killers Custer Couldn't Stop!"

9.7. The Canadians Poster, 20th Century Fox, 1961

Hollywood Mounties

"The Mountie is undoubtedly one of the most recognizable Canadian symbols. This was especially true in the movie industry during the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, when Hollywood produced several movies featuring fictional Mounties.

Learn more about Hollywood and Mounties by visiting the link provided. .

9.8. My American Cousin Poster, A Peter O'Brien Independant Pictures. Inc, & Borderline Productions, Inc., 1985

Genie Award Winner

"The winner of six 1985 Genie Awards (the Canadian equivalent of the Oscars), director Sandy Wilson's "My American Cousin" is a nostalgic, delicately-paced drama that plays exactly as if it were a memoir of the central character, many years down the road. Light on a so-called plot, but heavy on character observation, the film works a gentle spell around its viewer, and ends up leaving an unexpected lasting impression."

The poster depicts "Butch" the American cousin in his Cadilac convertable in the Okanagon, interior of British Columbia.

9.9. The Decline of the American Empire, Malofilm Group, National Film Board of Canada, 1986

Most Successful Film in the History of Canadain Cinema-Over 21 Prizes Won Worldwide.

"Acclaimed Canadian director Denys Arcand's witty comedy focuses on the marriages and affairs of eight intellectual friends. The group has plans to gather at a secluded house for dinner. While the four men prepare the food and reflect on their promiscuity, the four women discuss their own affairs at a nearby gym. At the dinner table, conflicts soon arise when Dominique, who teaches history at the local university, reveals that she herself has had affairs with two of the men there -- one of whom is married to Louise, also present. The entire evening turns into a disaster, with everyone at each other's throats. This Oscar-nominated Canadian film explores the subjects of marriage, infidelity and sex when a group of friendly intellectuals get together for a weekend in the country."

The poster imploys Picasso-like drawings in a French inspired surrealist setting.

9.10. Canadian Bacon, Polygram Filmed Entertainment, 1995

John Candy, Dan Akroyd and Michael Moore

This Michael Moore (Ferenheit 911) movie starred Canadian actors John Candy and Dan Ackroyd with Rhea Perlman, Alan Alda and others.
Like so many movies concerned with Canadian content, the production and acting team consisted of both Americans and Canadians.

The film is about the U.S. President, low in the opinion polls, gets talked into raising his popularity by trying to start a cold war against Canada.The poster imploys classic Canadian motifs; maple leaf, moose and Niagara Falls.

9.11. No Poster, Alliance Communication, 1998

Quebec Diptych in Osaka

"The reach may exceed the grasp of Robert Lepage's nergetic diptych about Quebecois separatists and sex in Osaka, but it's an ethusiastically messy melange of politics and farce. With Anne-Marie Cadieux, Marie Brassard, Alexis Martin, Marie Gignac, Richard Frechette. Screenplay by Robert Lepage and Andre Morency, adapted from Lepage's "The Seven Streams of the River Ota." Directed by Robert Lepage. In French with English subtitles."

No credits are given for graphic design. This is the case for most cinema posters, not only in Canada but elsewhere.

9.12. Bollywood Hollwood, Telefilm Canada, 2002

Fusion Poster, Canadian Style

"The film BOLLYWOOD/HOLLYWOOD is a musical romantic comedy, which crosses between the vibrant melodrama of Bollywood and the schematic mainstream cinema of Hollywood. Set in Toronto, Canada, BOLLYWOOD/HOLLYWOOD revolves around Rahul Seth, a young dot.com millionaire, and his unconventional relationship with the beautiful and wild Sue Singh. While Rahul is the scion of the typically successful NRI family, Sue is the daughter of a humble car mechanic and is one of the highest paid escort girls in Toronto."

9.13. Trudeau Poster, Morningstar Entertainment, CBC Home Entertainment, Motion Big Pictures, 2002

Synopsis of the Movie

"In 1968, Canada saw the election of a Prime Minister unlike any other in its history, Pierre Elliot Trudeau. Handsome, witty, idealistic, flamboyant, courageous and debonair Trudeau rides on an unheard of crest of popularity nicknamed "Trudeaumania" that sweeps him into the highest political office in the country. At the same time, he develops a passionate romance with a young Margaret Sinclair that soon leads to marriage. However, events would put both Pierre's political and personal life under the gun as he must struggle with traumatic events like the terrorist crisis that grips Quebec in October 1970 which forces him to declare temporary martial law being but the first of the major challenges. At the same time, the demands of being a Prime Minister's wife takes its own toll on Margaret as her relationship with Pierre begins to disintegrate.

Eventually, both pressures do their harm as the couple divorces and Pierre's political standing falls even as his Quebec Seperatist foes rise in power in Quebec and threaten to tear the country apart. With soul searching and difficult confrontations both in the political and private spheres, Pierre Trudeau faces the greatest challenges of his career. Those tasks of fighting to keep Quebec in Canada and then striving to bring home the Canadian Constitution complete with an entrenched Charter of Rights and Freedoms will leave an indelible mark on the nation even while he struggles to reconcile, however partially, with the woman he loved."

9.14. The Fast Runner,Odeon Films, 2002

First Inuit-language Feature Film Released Internationally

"Atanarjuat (The Fast Runner) is the first Inuit-language feature film released internationally, a project of director Zacharias Kunuk’s Igloolik Isuma Productions, an independent Inuit company based in northern Canada with the goal of creating an “ Inuit style of community-based media production to preserve and enhance Inuit culture — and represent a distinctively Inuit point of view.”

10. Various Posters & Illustrations

10.1. Industrial Fair, Toronto, 1896

Agriculture and Industry, Hand-in-Hand

The Crystal Palace and Lighing Tower surround a cherub celebration the 1896 Industrial Fair.

In 882, the Exhibition Grounds became the first fairgrounds in the world to be lighted by electricity. This was a joint effort by the Fuller Electric Light Co., of New York and the Ball Co., of London, and visitors marvelled at eh glare of light--it also meant that the closlng hour of the exhibition new extended to 10:00 p.m."

The poster is typical decorative, Post-Victorian style is rich with colour thanks to lithographic printing, still new at this time.

10.2. Exhibition of Pictures, Poster, Canadian Artists in Aid of the Patriotic Fund, Toronto, Ontario, 1914

Aritsts in Aid of Patriotic Fund

This offset lithograph on paper was printed by Rolf, Smith and Co., Toronto. "This image was based on J.E.H. MacDonald's first-prize-winning design in poster competition sponsored by the RCA for its special patriotic Fund exhibition, which open at the Art Museum, Toronto Public Library, on 30 December, 1916, then travelled across Canada."

10.3. Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario1939

Wartime Poster

With WWII looming, an aircraft overhead this happy family announces Transportation and Communications Year.

10.4. Malkins Coffee Poster, Vancouver, British Columbia, c. 1950

Silk Screened Point of Purchase

Sweetpeas are incorporated with a package of Malkin's Coffee in this 1950s silk screened poster.

Sign-makers would use the medium of screen-printing to create multiples, much less expensive than lithogrpahic prints for smaller production numbers.

"Sign-painters" or "sign-makers" would, many time be skilled typographers capable of fine hand lettering and illustration. Many sign painters would learn their skills by apprenticing with lettering experts. Eventually, sign-painters, letterers and other concerned with signage would study graphic design and typography.

10.5. Canadian Skill, Carl Dair, Henry Eveleigh, Toronto, 1950

One of the Great Typographers of the 1950s and 1960s

"The late Canadian typographer Carl Dair was one of the great typographic designers of the 1950s and 1960s, and he may have been the best of them all at explaining the nature of typography. In coordinated projects that he both wrote and designed, he managed to describe -- and show -- the ways in which manipulating and using type make typography happen.

Dair is the very epitome of what I mean when I say "typographer": someone who designs with type, not just a fancy typesetter, but someone who uses type, in all its variations, as the principle element of design. Since type carries meaning, the practice of typography requires a designer who cares about the words themselves. It requires someone who cares enough, and is skillful enough, to make the type express that meaning, rather than serve as simply eye-catching decoration.

Carl Dair's book "Design With Type" (originally published in 1952; revised and expanded in 1967) is deservedly still in print, even though the technology that he used and described has long been outdated. "

10.6. Expo 70 Poster, Osaka, Japan, 1970

Arthur Erickson Architect, Gordon Smith Painter

This Canada Expo 70, Osaka, Japan depicts the pavilion designed by Canadian architect Arthur Erickson. In the centre is an umbrella structure created by painter Gordon Smith.

10.7. vittorio


Wait for the video to load and then click the Play button to start the video.

Vittorio Fiorucci, Poster Artist, Montreal, Quebec

"From the street to the museum."

10.8. The Montreal International Film Festival Poster , Vittorio Fiorucci, Montreal, 1967

Poster King of Canada

"Over the course of his career, Vittorio Fiorucci has been a caricaturist, photographer, illustrator and magazine publisher; the author of comic books, children's books, photography books; a sculptor and a graphic designer. But it is above all as a poster artist that he has made his greatest mark, creating more than 300 posters and earning a prodigious number of international prizes and awards."

10.9. Pornographic Art Expostiong, Vittorio Fiorucci, Montreal, Quebec, c. 1970

Opera, Expo, Festival Posters

"During the preparation of the 1997 Kyoto Conference on Climate Change, Vittorio was the only Canadian to be invited to create a poster for the event; he was competing amongst the best poster artists in the world. But that was not the first time Vittorio's name was associated with a humanitarian cause; as early as 1967, he created an environmental poster titled "Don't cut the trees". He also made an imaginative statement with his "Women’s Lib" poster and with "Adieu Montréal", an image reflecting the demolition of Montreal's urban heritage.

In 1980, the Encyclopædia Universalis recognized him as one of the best poster artists in the world. The 1998 Mobius Award from the International Advertising Awards of Chicago and the 2000 CAPIC (Canadian Association of Photographers and Illustrators) Lifetime Achievement Award are just two of the honours bestowed on him throughout his career. The Institute of Design Montréal presented the Sam Lapointe Award to Vittorio Fiorucci in 2001."

10.10. 100 Years of Posters in Canada, Art Gallery of Ontario, 1979

Persuade, Inform & Entertain

The Canadian Poster book is the first full-length examination of Canadian poster art. It grew out of Robert Stacey's experience as manager of a Toronto poster gallery and organizer of 100 Years of the Poster in Canada for the Art Gallery of Ontario. The hundreds of posters and broadside illustrated adn discussed were chosen both for historical importance and aesthetic quailtiy...The author hopes that by revealing some of the good work that has been done in this field in Canada, the interest of private and institutional collectors will be stimulated, and that threares, galleries, government agencies, businesses and advertising firms which currently ignore the poster will reconsider its extraordinary potential to persuade, inform, and entertain. Canadian poster artists have at last achieved a degree of international acclaim."

10.11. The Mikado, Heather Cooper, Toronto, Ontario, 1882

Canada's Top Illustrator

"Born in Canada (1945), Ms Cooper is committed to the imaginative expression of ideas and has a passion for things well done. According to Ms Cooper, "the greatest works are never properly rewarded and likely never will be because, in order to achieve that greatness the artist leaps beyond the commercial boundaries, and applies talent and imagination that far exceed everyone's original expectations. Only by giving from the heart in this way will an artist summon the inspiration, ideas and insight that kindle the finest work."

-Art Director/ Illustrator: Heather Cooper
-Design Firm: Burns Cooper Hynes Ltd.
-Client: Stratford Festival


10.12. The Man I Love, Theo Dimson, Illustrator, Toronto, Ontario, 1990

Pivotal Figure in Canadian Graphic Design

"A pivotal figure in Canadian graphic design" (Azure magazine), Theo Dimson was born in London, Ontario. During a 50-year career, he has designed commemorative stamps for Canada Post, space shuttle posters for Imax and titles for the Norman Jewison films Agnes of God and Moonstruck. Oxford published his book on Canadian posters, and he has won numerous awards and recognition around the world. Dimson is a member of the prestigious Alliance Graphique Internationale, and he’s the only graphic artist to have held a one-man show at the Royal Ontario Museum (1993-94). Recently he traveled to Tsinghua University in Beijing to address an international symposium on the relationship between the Arts and Sciences."

-Art Director/Creative Director/ Designer: Theo Dimson
-Illustrators: Theo Dimson, Ken Jackson,
-Design Firm: Theo Dimson Design, Inc.
-Client: Tarragon Theatre
-Printer: Middleton Advertising

Gallery Stratford website. Viva, Fifthieth Anniversary Book, p.67. Illustration: Viva. Visit this link: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/incoming/art-deco-designer-brought-flamboyance-to-his-work-and-life/article549542/

10.13. Prostitutes Aren't Born, Deborah Prenger ,Art Director, Toronto,1994

Social Issure

"54% of Toronto's 10,000 street kids are involved in prostitution, 100% wish they weren't.

Art Director: Deborah Prenger
Writer: Glen Hunt
Creative Director: Geoffrey B. Roshe
Agency: Geoffrey B. Roche & Partners
Client: Operation Go Home."

10.14. Calgary Industrial Exhibition ( Later, to Become Calgary Stampede), Calgary, 1912

Earliest Poster

The Calgary Stampede was originally called the Calgary Industrial Exhibition. More information about the design of Canadian exhibitions will be discussed in the lecture on Exhibiitons, Fairs and Celebrations.

10.15. The Stampede, Calgary, 1919

Cowboys/Rodeo Style

"1884 Agricultural Society formed
1886 First Calgary Exhibition held
1889 Stampede Park was purchased from the Dominion Government
1908 Dominion Exhibition held
1912 Guy Weadick arrived, envisaged a Wild West Extravaganza, arranged financing from the "Big 4" (Lane, McLean, Burns and Cross) to the tune of $100,000 and in September 1912, the first Calgary Stampede was held - a roaring success
1922 Calgary Industrial Exhibition held
1923 The Stampede hosted the first competitive Chuckwagon Races"

10.16. Calgary Stampede Poster, Calgary,1950

Maple Leaves, Chuck Wagon Race, Mounties

This 1950s poster format was used for almost a decade. There is little information about designers or artists responsible for the creation of the posters. Many times for community events such as this the organizing committee worked a local printer who would supply the art work as well. There is no mention of a competition or the process of selecting each years poster designs.

Visit the link provided (scan down to Poster Sponsorship Project) to see the colleciton of poster from earliest Stampedes to present.

10.17. Calgary Stampede Poster, Calgary, Alberta, 1973

Posters Document History

“Nothing illustrates the history and growth of the Calgary "Stampede with more accuracy and clarity than the annual posters…”
- Lorne Stoute, The Canadian Cattleman, June 1946

Each year the Calgary Stampede creates a new poster to promote its celebration of western culture and tradition. Collectively, these posters portray 10 decades of vibrant and colourful history of both the Calgary Stampede and of life in southern Alberta.

The Calgary Stampede Historical Committee in association with the Calgary Stampede Foundation is creating a permanent home for a public exhibition of these posters. The “Parade of Historical Posters” will open in June 2003 at Stampede Park."

Visit the link provided to view Calgary Stampede posters from early times to present.

10.18. Calgary Stampede Poster, Ken Dewar, Calgary, Alberta, 2005

Calgary Stampede a World Famous Icon

"The 2005 Centennial Poster reflects the excitement, pride and vibrancy of today’s Stampede, while reinforcing our Western heritage. The first thing you will notice about the 2005 poster is that the layoutis a departure from the traditional approach. This reflects and underscores the fact that our organization can and is changing without impacting the underlying values, principles and traditions that have made the Calgary Stampede a world famous icon. The poster’s unique elements tell us about how the Stampede hasbecome a part of our community, just as our community is an integral part of the Stampede. Alberta artist Ken Dewar illustrated the Stampede poster for Alberta’s Centennial year. Ken has worked in Calgary for 20 years as a freelance illustrator for various advertising agencies and clients, andin the limited edition print market. Ken has done a number of military prints for both Canadian and American military and will be branching out into fantasy print market this year. In 1999, Ken became an instructor at the Alberta College of Art and Design."

10.19. The Imperial Oil Review, Arnaud Maggs, Toronto, 1964

Usherwood Award Winner

In 1994, Arnaud Maggs won the Les Usherwood Award.
Maggs is not only a fine illustrator, his photographs are collected an represented

Visit the link provided to learn more about this Advertising and Design Club of Canada and past award winners.

10.20. Shown Here, Benjamin Vendramin, Art Director, Toronto, Ontario, 1995

Race Relations

Michael Conread.
Male Age 28.
Armed Robbery.
Assault and Battery.
Janauary 1994 by
Police Lietenant
Joseph Cruthers,
shown here.

Urban Alliance on Race Relations

11. Vancouver 2010 Olympic Logo/Graphics and "Look"

"The 2010 Winter Olympics will feature a unique design of an inukshuk, a traditional stone sculpture used by Canada's Inuit people, as its official logo.

The winning logo, called Ilanaaq (el la nawk), was unveiled Saturday in Vancouver and was designed by local graphic designers Elena Rivera MacGregor and Gonzalo Alatorre.

Their emblem was selected by a nine-member panel and beat out over 1,600 other submissions".

Source: CBC blog-website

Visit this link.


12. Vancouver 2010 Olympic Logo/Graphics and "Look"

"The 2010 Winter Olympics will feature a unique design of an inukshuk, a traditional stone sculpture used by Canada's Inuit people, as its official logo.

The winning logo, called Ilanaaq (el la nawk), was unveiled Saturday in Vancouver and was designed by local graphic designers Elena Rivera MacGregor and Gonzalo Alatorre.

Elena is a graduate of ECUAD.

Their emblem was selected by a nine-member panel and beat out over 1,600 other submissions".

Source: Elena's webstie:

Visit this link.


12.1. Logo Design Issues

Elena Rivera MacGregor, winner of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics logo, orignally from Mexico, is an ECUAD alumnus of ECUAD.

The ubiquitous symbol of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada comes from an ancient cultural icon and practical tool of the Inuit people – the inukshuk. An inukshuk is a stack of stones traditionally used by the Inuit of the arctic to mark anything from a hunting spot to a food cache. In 2005, the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the Olympics chose a multicolored humanoid version of an inukshuk as the games' official 2010 emblem.

"Nothing terribly earth-shattering to tell you about the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics logo. It’s a bit of old news really, having been unveiled almost five years ago during the official ceremony in Vancouver. But as this is a blog devoted to logo design, and as the games opened this morning, I’d be remiss in my duties if we didn’t take a cursory glance of the logo that will represent the Winter Olympics for the next sixteen days or so. First things first and giving credit where it’s due, the logo was designed by Vancouver artists, Elena Rivera MacGregor and Gonzalo Alatorre, at the time from the Riviera Design Group, beating out 1,600 other submissions to win the gig."

Source: Steve Douglas, The logo!factor website.

Visit this link to learn about Elena and her career:


Photo: Authentic Inuit  stone Inukshuk

Source: Native American Legal Update website:

12.2. Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Graphic Identity

"Last week, the full look for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Games was unveiled, from the sport pictograms to the colour palette. Without boring you with too much commentary, we’ll let you dive right into a wide selection of original illustrations, brilliantly-chosen textures and colours, and a brand that’s filled with style and personality."

Source: Kevin, elbowruminations website.

Visit this link to learn about Vancouver 2010 Graphic Identity


12.3. Vancouver 2010 Olympic Design Team

Design team with Leo Obstbaum, Vancouver, circa 2008

"The official poster is one of the most popular collector’s items of the Olympic Games and has had a place in history since the first Games poster in 1912. The Vancouver 2010 official poster concept was sketched quickly on paper and a digital mock-up was complete within a few hours. Over several weeks, each element of the design was stenciled and inked by hand at a 1:1 ratio (24x36 inch canvas) before being digitally assembled. The posters received international attention in newspapers, design magazines, and television, including an appearance on The Colbert Report on February 11, 2010, the eve of the opening ceremonies. Two editions went into production. 18x27 inch 4-colour offset lithography, and 16x24 inch limited edition (2010 signed and number prints) 12-colour giclee fine art print with embossed emblems. In April 2012, the posters were added to the 2nd edition of "A Century of Olympic Posters" by Margaret Timmers. The Look of the Games graphic elements were created by the 2010 design team (Mélanie Kimmett, Jason Esteban, Ben Hulse, Karen Clark, Jackie Boucher, Chloé Douglas, Shawn Parkinson) and were reinterpreted for the posters. Concept, design, stencilling, compositing and photography by Ben Hulse. Art direction by Leo Obstbaum. Project management by Julie Morgan."

Leo Obstbaum passed away prior to the opening of the games.

Sources: HU website, Industrial Brand website

Visit thesw links: